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2002 Ap Biology Essay

Presentation on Essay Why I Should Be Selected "AP Biology Lab Review AP Biology Lab 1: Essays Paper Done In Apa & Osmosis  Description  dialysis tubing "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" with starch- glucose solution in beaker filled with."— Presentation transcript:

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2002 Ap Bio Essay 19952002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 2 AP Biology Lab Review

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 3 AP Biology Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis  Description  dialysis tubing filled with starch- glucose solution in beaker filled with KI solution  potato cores in sucrose solutions  determining solute concentration of different solutions

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 4 A Cover Letter Addressing The Selection Criteria ExamplesTrifles Essay Conclusion Transitions AP Biology Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis  Concepts  semi-permeable membrane  diffusion  osmosis  solutions  hypotonic  hypertonic  isotonic  water potential

5 "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis  Conclusions  water moves from high concentration of water "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" solute) to low concentration of water (hypertonic=high solute)  solute concentration & size of molecule 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 movement through semi-permeable membrane

6 AP Biology Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis ESSAY 1992 A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer: a.a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment; b.the results you would expect from your experiment; and c.an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.

News 12 Assignment Desk 7 AP Biology Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis  Description 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 measured factors affecting enzyme activity  H 2 O 2  H 2 O + O 2  measured rate of O 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 production catalase

8 AP Biology Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis  Concepts  substrate  enzyme  enzyme structure  product  denaturation of protein  experimental design  rate of reactivity  reaction with enzyme vs. reaction without enzyme  optimum pH or temperature  test at various pH or temperature values 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995

2002 Ap Bio Essay 19952002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 9 AP Biology Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis  Conclusions  enzyme reaction rate is affected by:  pH  temperature  substrate concentration  enzyme concentration calculate rate?

10 AP Biology ESSAY 2000 The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The following results were obtained. a. How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer, include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme, "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" well as a discussion of ho structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH. b. Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. Be sure to state the hypothesis that was tested here. Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis

11 A Cover Letter Addressing The Selection Criteria Examples AP Biology Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis  Description  cell stages of mitosis  exam slide of onion root tip  count number 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 cells in each stage to determine relative time spent in each stage  stages of & crossing over in meiosis  model cell stages & crossing over  farther genes are from each other the greater number of crossovers

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 12 AP Biology Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis  Concepts  mitosis  interphase  prophase  metaphase  anaphase  telophase  meiosis  meiosis 1  separate homologous pairs  meiosis 2  separate "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" chromatids  crossing over  in prophase 1 I PMAT

13 AP Biology Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis  Conclusions  Mitosis  cell division  growth, repair  making clones  longest phase = interphase 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 each subsequent phase is shorter in duration  Meiosis  reduction division  making gametes  increasing variation  crossing over in Prophase 1

14 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis ESSAY 1987 Discuss 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. Do not include meiosis. ESSAY 2004 Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a. Explain how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b. Several human disorders occur a result of defects in the meiotic process. Identify ONE such Bad Family Upbringing Essay abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c. Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the offspring with those of the Sample Five Paragraph Essays.

15 AP Biology Lab 4: Photosynthesis  Description  determine rate of photosynthesis under different conditions  light vs. dark  boiled vs. unboiled chloroplasts  chloroplasts vs. no chloroplasts  use DPIP in place of NADP +  DPIP ox = blue  DPIP red = clear  measure light transmittance  paper chromatography to separate plant pigments

"2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" 16 Drydens Essay Of Dramatic Poesy Is Weegy Reliable AP Biology Lab 4: Photosynthesis  Concepts  photosynthesis  Photosystem 1  NADPH  chlorophylls & other plant pigments  chlorophyll a  chlorophyll b  xanthophylls  carotenoids  experimental design  2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 vs. 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 17 AP Biology Lab 4: Photosynthesis  Conclusions  Pigments  pigments move at different rates based on solubility in solvent  Photosynthesis  light & unboiled chloroplasts produced highest rate of photosynthesis Which is the control?#2 (DPIP 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 chloroplasts + light)

18 AP Biology Lab 4: Photosynthesis ESSAY 2004 (part 1) A controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 photosynthetic rate of incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with DPIP, an electron acceptor that changes from blue to clear Essayez Le Curling Hotel it is reduced. Lord Of The Flies Microcosm Essay About Myself sample was placed individually in a spectrophotometer and the percent transmittance was recorded. The three samples used were prepared as 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995. Sample 1 —chloroplast suspension + DPIP Sample 2 —chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment + DPIP Sample 3 —chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIP Data are given in the table on the next page. a.Construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples. b.Identify and explain the control or controls for this experiment. c.The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons produced in the three samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and why the three samples gave different transmittance results.

19 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 Lab 4: Photosynthesis ESSAY 2004 (part 2) Time (min) Light, Unboiled % transmittance Sample 1 Dark, Unboiled % transmittance Sample 2 Light, Boiled % transmittance Sample 3 028.829.228.8 548.730.129.2 1057.831.229.4 1562.532.428.7 2066.731.828.5

Dissertation Apologue Instruire De 20 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 5: Cellular Respiration  Description  using respirometer to measure rate of O 2 production by pea seeds  non-germinating peas  germinating peas  effect of temperature  control for changes in 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 & temperature in room

Sports And Culture Essay Example 21 AP Biology Lab 5: Cellular Respiration  Concepts  "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995"  experimental design  control vs. experimental  function KOH  function of vial with only glass beads

22 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 5: Cellular Respiration  Conclusions   temp =  respiration   germination =  2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 calculate rate?

2002 Ap Bio Essay 19952002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 23 AP Biology Lab 5: Cellular Respiration ESSAY 1990 The results below are measurements of cumulative oxygen consumption by germinating and dry seeds. Gas volume measurements were corrected for changes in temperature and pressure. a. Plot the results for the germinating seeds at 22°C and 10°C. b. Calculate the rate of oxygen consumption for the germinating seeds at 22°C, using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes. c. Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: 1. germinating seeds at 22°C and at 10°C 2. germinating seeds and dry seeds. d. Describe the essential features of an experimental apparatus that could be 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 to measure oxygen consumption by a small organism. Explain why each of these features is necessary. Cumulative Oxygen 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 (mL) Time (minutes)010203040 Germinating seeds 22°C0.08.816.023.732.0 Dry Seeds (non-germinating) 22°C0.00.20.10.00.1 Germinating Seeds 10°C0.02.96.29.412.5 Dry Seeds (non-germinating) 10°C0.0 0.20.10.2

24 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 6: Molecular Biology  The End Of Suburbia Essay Checker  Transformation  insert foreign gene in bacteria by using engineered plasmid "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" also insert ampicillin resistant gene on same plasmid as selectable marker  Gel electrophoresis  cut DNA with restriction enzyme  fragments separate on gel based on size

25 AP Biology Lab 6: Molecular Biology  Concepts  transformation  plasmid  selectable marker  ampicillin resistance  restriction enzyme  gel electrophoresis 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 DNA 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 negatively charged  smaller fragments travel faster

26 AP Biology Lab 6: Transformation  Conclusions  can insert foreign 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 using vector  ampicillin becomes selecting agent  no transformation = no growth on amp + plate

27 Ignou Ms-01 Solved Assignment 2013 Chevy2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 6: Gel Electrophoresis  Conclusions DNA = negatively charged smaller fragments travel faster & therefore farther correlate distance to size

28 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 6: Molecular Biology ESSAY 1995 The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). a.Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragments b.Describe the results you would expect from electrophoretic separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above. Assume that the digestion occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. I.DNA digested with only enzyme X II.DNA digested with only enzyme Y III.DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined IV.Undigested DNA c.Explain both of the following: 1.The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes 2.The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 Y.

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995Learning A Foreign Language Essay 29 AP Biology Lab 6: Molecular Biology ESSAY 2002 The human genome illustrates both continuity and change. a.Describe the essential features of two of the procedures/techniques below. For each of the procedures/techniques you describe, explain how its application contributes to understanding genetics.  The use of a bacterial plasmid to clone and sequence a human gene  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  Restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP b.All humans nearly identical genetically in coding sequences and have many proteins that are identical in structure and function. Nevertheless, each human has a unique fingerprint. Explain this apparent contradiction.

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 30 Essay On Firefighters AP Biology Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)  Description  given fly of unknown genotype use crosses to determine mode of inheritance of trait

31 Beowulf And Gilgamesh Comparison Essay AP Biology Lab "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" Genetics (Fly Lab)  Concepts  phenotype vs. genotype  dominant vs. recessive  P, F1, F2 generations  sex-linked  monohybrid cross  dihybrid cross  test cross  chi square

32 AP Biology Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab) ESSAY 2003 (part 1) In fruit flies, the phenotype for eye color is determined by a certain locus. E indicates the dominant allele and e indicates the recessive allele. The cross between a male wild type fruit fly and a female white eyed fruit fly 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 the following offspring The wild-type and white-eyed individuals from the F1 generation were then crossed to produce the following offspring. a. Determine the genotypes of the original parents (P generation) and explain your reasoning. You may use Punnett squares to enhance your description, but the results from the Punnett squares must be discussed in your answer. b. Use a Chi-squared test on the F2 generation data to analyze your prediction of the parental genotypes. Show all your work and explain the Apa Format Essay Generator Software of your final answer. c. The brown-eyed female of the F1 generation resulted from a mutational change. Explain what a mutation is, and discuss two types of mutations that might have produced the brown-eyed female in the F1 generation. Wild-Type Male Wild-Type Female White-eyed Male White-Eyed Female Brown-Eyed Female F-1 0455501 Wild-Type Male Wild-Type Haven Cover Letter Samples White-eyed Male White-Eyed Female Brown-Eyed Female F-2 233122240

33 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab) ESSAY 2003 (part 2) The formula for Chi-squared is: Probability (p) Degrees of Freedom (df) 12345.053.845.997.829.4911.1 22 =  (observed – expected) 2 expected

34 AP Biology Lab 8: Population Genetics  Description  simulations were used to study effects of different parameters on frequency of alleles in a population  selection  heterozygous advantage  genetic drift

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 35 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 8: Population Genetics  Concepts  Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium  p + q = 1  p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1  required conditions  large population  random mating  no mutations  no natural selection  no migration  gene pool  heterozygous advantage  genetic drift  founder effect  bottleneck

36 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 8: Population Genetics  Conclusions  recessive alleles remain hidden 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 the pool of heterozygotes  even lethal recessive alleles are not completely removed from population  know how to solve H-W problems!  to calculate allele frequencies, use p + q = 1  to calculate genotype frequencies or how many individuals, use, "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1

37 AP Biology Lab 8: Population Genetics ESSAY 1989 Do the following with reference to the Hardy-Weinberg model. a. Indicate the conditions under which allele frequencies (p and q) remain constant from one generation 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 the next. 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995. Calculate, showing all 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995, the frequencies of the alleles and frequencies of the genotypes in a population of 100,000 rabbits of which 25,000 are white and 75,000 are agouti. (In rabbits the white color is due to a recessive allele, w, and agouti is due to a dominant allele, W.) c. If the homozygous dominant condition were to become lethal, what would happen to the allelic and genotypic frequencies in the rabbit population after two generations?

Writing A Thesis Statement Pdf Template 38 AP Biology Lab 9: Transpiration  Description  test the effects of environmental factors on rate of transpiration  2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995  humidity  air flow (wind)  light intensity

"2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" 39 AP Biology Lab 9: Transpiration  Concepts  transpiration  stomates  guard cells  xylem  adhesion  cohesion  H bonding

40 Boredom Research Paper AP Biology Lab 9: Transpiration  Conclusions   transpiration   wind   light   transpiration   humidity

Case Study Video Analytics Ip 41 AP Biology Lab 9: Transpiration ESSAY 1991 A group of students designed an experiment to measure transpiration rates in a particular species of herbaceous plant. Plants were divided into four groups and were exposed to the following conditions. Group I:Room conditions (light, low humidity, 20°C, little air movement.) Group II:Room conditions with increased humidity. Group III:Room conditions with increased air movement (fan) Group IV:Room conditions with additional light The cumulative water loss due to transpiration of water from each plant was measured at 10-minute intervals for 30 minutes. Water loss was expressed as milliliters of water per square centimeter of leaf surface area. The data for all plants in Group I (room conditions) were averaged. The average cumulative water loss by the plants Group I is presented in the table below. 1.Construct and label a graph using the data for Group I. Using the same set of axes, draw and label three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for Groups II, III, and IV. 2.Explain how biological and physical processes are responsible for the difference between each of your predictions and the data for Group I. 3.Explain how the concept of water potential is used to account for the movement of water from the plant stem to the atmosphere during transpiration. Average Cumulative Water Loss by the Plants in Group I (minutes)Average Cumulative Water Loss (mL H 2 O/cm 2 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 103.5 x 10 -4 207.7 x 10 -4 3010.6 x 10 -4

2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 42 AP Biology Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology  Description  study factors that affect heart rate  body position  level of activity  determine whether an organism is an endotherm or an ectotherm by measuring change in pulse rate as temperature changes  Daphnia

43 2002 Ap Bio Essay 19952002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology  Concepts  thermoregulation  endotherm  ectotherm  Q 10  measures increase in metabolic activity resulting from increase in temperature  Daphnia can adjust their temperature to the environment, as temperature in environment increases, their body temperature also increases which increases their heart rate

44 AP Biology Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology  "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995"  Activity increase heart rate  in a fit individual pulse & blood pressure are lower & will return more quickly to resting condition after exercise than in a less fit individual  Pulse rate changes in an ectotherm as external temperature changes

45 AP Biology Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology ESSAY 2002 In mammals, heart rate during periods of exercise is "2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995" to the intensity of exercise. a.Discuss the Co Education Essay Downloader of the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems during exercise. b.Design a controlled experiment to determine the relationship between intensity of exercise and heart rate. c.On the axes provided below, indicate results you expect for both the control and the experimental groups German French English Comparison Essays the controlled experiment you described in 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 B. Remember to label the axes.

46 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior  Description  set up an experiment to study behavior in an organism  Betta fish agonistic behavior Drosophila mating behavior  pillbug kinesis

47 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior  Concepts  innate vs. learned behavior  experimental design  control vs. experimental  hypothesis  choice chamber  temperature  humidity  light intensity  salinity  other factors

48 AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior  Hypothesis development  Poor: I think pillbugs will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber.  Better: If pillbugs prefer a moist environment, then when they are randomly placed on both sides of a wet/dry choice chamber and allowed to move about freely for 2002 Ap Bio Essay 1995 minutes, most will be found on the wet side.

49 AP Biology Lab 11: Animal Behavior ESSAY 1997 A scientist working with Bursatella leachii, a sea slug that lives in an intertidal habitat in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico, gathered the following information about the distribution of the sea slugs within a ten-meter square plot over a Against Death Penalty Debate Essay Rubric day period. a.For the data above, provide information on each of the following:  Summarize the pattern. Cooper Harris Homework Research And Policy Identify three physiological or environmental variables that could cause the slugs to vary their distance from each other.  Explain how each variable could bring about the observed pattern of distribution. b.Choose one of the variables that you identified and design a controlled experiment to test your hypothetical explanation. Describe results that would support or refute your hypothesis. time of day12 mid4am8am12 noon4pm8pm12 mid average distance between individuals 8.08.944.8174.0350.560.58.0

Exam Information (AP Biology Exam from spring 2012 and prior)

Exam Content

The Topic Outline in the Course and Exam Description provides details about the content on the exam. About 25 percent of the multiple-choice questions are likely to be on the subject areas listed under Area I (molecules and cells). Similarly, one of the four essay questions will also be taken from that area; another question will be on Area II (heredity and evolution); and the remaining two questions will be on Area III (organisms and populations). In answering any of the four free-response questions, students may need to analyze and interpret data or information drawn from lab experience (as well as from lecture material) or to integrate material from different areas of the course.

Multiple-Choice Questions

For sample multiple-choice questions, refer to the Course and Exam Description (.pdf/490KB).

Past Free-Response Questions

Below are free-response questions from past AP Biology Exams. Included with the questions are scoring guidelines, sample student responses, and commentary on those responses, as well as exam statistics and the Chief Reader's Student Performance Q&A for past administrations.

Important Note About the "Form B" Exams

Because of the worldwide growth of the AP Program and the administration of exams in multiple time zones, another version of the AP Biology Exam, called "Form B," may be administered in order to maintain security.