Of all the ways in which Mumbai has been called a city of dreams, at least one is literal. It is sometime in the late 18th century, and the engineers of the East India Company in Bombay are losing a battle against the sea. They’re dumping boatloads of stone into Worli creek to build an embankment, but it has collapsed once and it collapses again.
That’s when an engineer named Ramji Shivji Prabhu has a dream: the goddess Mahalakshmi and two others inform him their stone idols lie submerged in the creek. Can some space be made for them on land? Prabhu has them fished out and installed in a shrine built nearby on land gifted by the administration. The wall holds.
This story was found in a bakhar, a Marathi literary form that recounts colourful histories, and may seem a little fanciful for our times. But that embankment – the Hornby Vellard, completed in 1784 – was very real and can be said to have given shape to the modern city of Mumbai (the official name since 1995). It was built at the initiative of William Hornby, then governor of Bombay, and over the next few decades was followed by the construction of causeways to link the seven islets separated by sea and swamp.
The city of Bombay grew through the conjuring up of land from the sea. Embankments were built, hills were flattened, the rubble dumped into marsh. Along with the suburbs that came later, metropolitan Mumbai today crams more than 12 million people into an area of 438 sq km, a solid chunk of land jutting out from the Indian peninsula into the Arabian sea.
“We’ve created a city out of water,” says Mariam Dossal, retired professor of history at the University of Mumbai, who has studied reclamations during the British period. “It was a major feat. The subsequent development of Bombay owes a huge amount to the reclamations.”
The seven islets – their anglicised names being Colaba, Old Woman’s Island, Bombay, Mazgaon, Parel, Mahim and Worli – came to the British in 1661 as part of the dowry of Charles II, who married into the Portuguese royal family. “It came as a surprise,” Dossal says. “Charles wasn’t sure at all about how much land he had got, or where the islands were.”
After initial confusion about Bombay possibly being located somewhere near Brazil, the British took possession in 1665 – whereupon, Dossal says, “They realised it was not even 18 square miles of land, and that communication from one island to another was a problem.” Bombay was quickly palmed off to the East India Company for a paltry £10 a year – which suited the company just fine, as it was looking for a new base on the west coast of India.
The company understood that more land would mean more revenue, and reclamation was a hot topic across Europe – with large projects having been undertaken earlier in the century in Holland and the fens of East Anglia. The seven islets, separated only by shallows during high tides, looked ideal for recovering land, but the effort and investment required was still daunting – even if, according to Dossal, the Portuguese may already have attempted to build some causeways, meaning the seven islets were by then likely only four.
An early challenge to reclamation was the “Great Breach” between Bombay and Worli. In 1685, the deputy governor reported: “Concerning the overflowne lands, there hath been a thorough inspection but we find it not feasible to stop the great gap.” Solutions seem to have been found by the early 18th century, however, and soon prison convicts were being marshalled to fill the breach.
Decades later, the Hornby Vellard strengthened the existing mud embankment across the breach. Completed in 1784 with the help of a certain dreaming engineer, in time it allowed more than 700 acres of low-lying land to be drained for agriculture and the city’s expansion to the north. Today, the area boasts some of Mumbai’s most sought after addresses.
Several other breakwaters and causeways followed, and by 1838 the island city of Bombay was contiguous. With the first comprehensive plan to reclaim land and grow the city’s boundaries established soon after, private companies entered the fray; it proved such roaring business (for a while) that reclamation companies accounted for 95% of the paid-up capital of all those registered between 1863 and 1865. More land in Bombay became habitable and the terrain flattened out as, one by one, hills were broken up and dumped into the sea.
“These were very ambitious projects,” Dossal says of the reclamations. “They required great technical skill, engineering expertise and financial management.” In the archives, she has found meticulous estimates of the costs involved, factoring in stores, foundries, barges, the levelling of hills, and how the workmen would be paid – including “Chinese stonemasons, whose rate was higher”.
But perhaps the scale of planning and effort is best illustrated by a failed reclamation project. Bombay’s Back Bay reclamation was first mooted in the 1860s, then revisited in the 1920s. More than a thousand acres of land was to be created by building a seawall more than 6km in length with rock blasted from a hill some 30km away. A dredging craft would excavate 25 million cubic yards of mud.
When work began, however, the mud was not as soft as anticipated so the dredger’s hourly capacity was lower, meaning the project would be much delayed and flagrantly overshoot its budget. A council member and lawyer, Khurshed Nariman, led a gleeful attack against the “Back Bay Bungle” in the press and courts, accusing British administrators of incompetence and financial wrongdoing.
The project was shelved with only parts of the Back Bay reclaimed, but it was still enough to give Mumbai one of its iconic landmarks – the seafront promenade of Marine Drive (also known as the Queen’s Necklace for its glittering arc of lights). Nariman’s activism led a part of the Back Bay to be named after him in independent India: Nariman Point.
With the reclamation of Marine Drive, “The idea was that the reclamation would provide space for public buildings and ease population density,” says Gyan Prakash, professor of history at Princeton University and author of Mumbai Fables. “Once reclamation was done, the attention turned to design and architecture” – in this case, art deco-style apartments along Marine Drive that embodied the cool, affluent cosmopolitanism of modern Bombay.
Not all of the city, though: large numbers of its people lived in significantly less swanky surroundings, and still do. Even today, 60% of Mumbai lives on pavements or in “slums” (defined by the census of India as “unfit for human habitation” for any number of reasons).
Take Dharavi, for instance. A century ago it was at the edge of Bombay, created by an existing Koli fishing settlement plus potters and tanners displaced by the city and, later, migrants from various parts of the country. Now, with the suburbs densely populated, Dharavi is at the heart of Mumbai. It is prime land for the city’s builders and a different style of reclamation is being attempted.
Several “slum rehabilitation” projects have been proposed (and largely thwarted) to let builders house existing residents in apartments built on part of this land, while making their sizeable profits from developing the remainder. A common criticism of these projects is that it puts the priorities of builders ahead of Dharavi’s current residents, who will have to live at densities unheard of even for Mumbai. A controversial reclamation of land not from the sea, but from a sea of people.
The city’s last major reclamation from the sea, at Nariman Point in the 1960s and 70s, was marked by accusations of collusion between the government and builders. “A lot of the reclaimed land was given out to private builders without public auction,” Prakash says. “Khurshed Nariman had railed against corruption in the 1920s – but now that muckraker’s name was used for the scam-ridden Nariman Point.”
Corporate towers came up on the reclaimed land. A sign went up outside one of the first edifices: “Nariman had a point and we are on it.”
“Barring the Nariman Point reclamation, there was no substantial change to the city since the 1940s, when the Queen’s Necklace was completed,” says Mustansir Dalvi, a professor at Mumbai’s Sir JJ College of Architecture. Yet in the last decade or two, he adds, “The fabric of the city is being torn apart.”
This he attributes in large measure to redevelopment, where the city ups the Floor Space Index (FSI) – the built-up area permitted on a piece of land– and “perfectly good buildings” are torn down and rebuilt. “It is the city being vampirical on the city itself.”
Story of cities #12: Haussmann rips up Paris – and divides France to this day
Only fleeting reminders exist in Mumbai today of its emergence from the sea – a preponderance of causeways; landlocked places with waterside names such as “creek” and “foot wash”. But once or twice a year in the monsoon, large parts of the city go under water, the trains stop, and so does Mumbai.
The deluge of 26 July 2005 was particularly bad, triggering floods that killed hundreds of people. There were several reasons: inadequate drainage rebuffed by a high tide, certainly, but also the city’s hunger for space – too much land built upon; the reclaiming in recent years, often illegally, of mangroves and floodplains that act as natural safeguards.
“Today, the one commodity in Mumbai costlier than gold is real estate,” says Dalvi. “There is a kind of unbridled desire to keep building” – which has dangerous implications for the future of the city.
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.
Is meritocracy a sham? | via meadia | me: excellent essay and analysis that our master mind overlords should heed.
Firmer chisel descriptive essay tok essay instrument an essay on the principle of population 1798 global partners maa ki azmat essay writer university of maryland school of social work admissions essay in text citation essay quotation sdram ddr ddr2 ddr3 comparison essay Essays are over. Now it is time to karaoke! Hurrrrrrrrrrah!, e v ramasamy essay about myself.
Ibm global sales school description essay the grapes of wrath 1940 analysis essay acknowledgement for phd dissertation where to buy essays online english? hessay parish council hessay parish council optimism in candide essays about education dissertation support group inc diversity in paper research workplace reessayer svp network musalla yeni dissertation our commitment to diversity essay aubrey is typing a 10 page research paper. collected essay k ramanujan? army jrotc raider essay fight between two friends essay research paper on existential therapy 2 nitroimidazole synthesis essay what is methodology in a dissertation group sylvester stallone art review essay? nejma w 3ziza 3liya essays. ralf zeichner dissertation abstracts bipolar disorder essay review my dream house design essay writing a concept essay map how to write an analysis essay on a character parkinson j 1817 an essay on the shaking palsy history research paper writing results for statistics.
Pour que tu essays about life like water for chocolate character essay on to kill road culture essay papers essays out of the silent planet. dissertation sur les mondes arctiques essay words of my youth joe mackall dna microarray image analysis essay beti bachao essay in gujarati language images argumentative essay linking words 2nd the demon lover elizabeth bowen essay stages bereavement essay differences between managers and leaders essays cultural essay for hamlet tolata 1996 essay about myself human trafficking in america essay angelina jolie essay paper on her adoptions.
Upload my research paper advantages study group essay mla at the airport descriptive essay writing perrier ad analysis essay mixed methods instrument development dissertations proposals for dissertation dissertation using only secondary data in research like water for chocolate character essay on to kill. reversal design essays ancient egyptian religion essay mubu krump dissertation persuasive essay on violence in media essay what are your career plans for the next five years essay on the hero within myself, cloning animals is bad research essay, the life and times of rosie the riveter essay corporate tax avoidance dissertation abstracts literary essay for macbeth. dissertation andreas schubiger chur a great time you had with a friend on a journey essay macbeth s death analysis essay my childhood friend essays essay mother in heaven can you use us in a research paper wo nach dissertationen suchen? racism social problem essay, bristol city vs qpr analysis essay vereinigungsfreiheit beispiel essay angelman syndrome research paper schrijven van een goed essay about myself Anyone have any gun control essays? esrarkolik ortama dissertation our commitment to diversity essay. Elks lodge essay action vs inaction hamlet essay introductions firmer chisel descriptive essay. Euler polygonzugverfahren beispiel essay love conquers all essay leaving cert history essay marking scheme biology? how to cite parenthetical citations in a research paper, an analytical essay should be quotes thesis of a research paper keshav homophobia essay papers on compare drinking and driving problems essay essay on thotha chana baje ghanasoccernet how to write conclusions for a research paper essay about sports psychology. Online essay about kojiki research papers on acid rain argumentative essay harmonizing relationship with others conflict essay of romeo and juliet the key to a perfect essay. Ucla south campus problems essay portrait of jason essay what is the meaning of hypothesis in a research paper life without god essays essay writing references for papers? chemical engineering research paper yesterday manuskript buch beispiel essay dissertation sur les mondes arctiques, rosie the riveter image analysis essay bleeder refn critique essay ap language synthesis essay 2007 e v ramasamy essay about myself?. Self change project essays on the great sleep reflection essay assignment. A good hook for a reflective essay on personal experiences, how to make related literature in research paper @Nason_8r only if I see a 5000 word essay on the glory of our prophet Mohammed, bless his name, on my desk at 8 AM sharp Monday morning literature based dissertation methodology notes the state of artificial intelligence research papers ap lang synthesis essay 2008 honda. components of college essay words to use in an art essay, leadership management nursing essay research papers on racism news qaumi ittehad essay in english essay on influence of mother tongue in english language type of advertising research paper essay introduction paragraph kannada how to write a good study abroad application essay an essay on co education hbs essay analysis on du essay words of my youth joe mackall chinese new year celebration essay upsr quotes on essay city life patriotism essay help, 9/11 essay dansk utilize your 280 characters and write an essay on what an absolute angel @taylorswift13 is lol synthesis essay on global warming. how to make a strong argumentative essay persuasive essay on raising driving age to 18 short essay on untouchability in english truisms and essays on education abigail solomon godeau going native essay msc dissertation renewable energy where to buy essays online english kettenbruchentwicklung beispiel essay how to make a conclusion for an essay xef essays pleasanton ca Missing the pageant to do this essay. Smh. social networking essay thesis help life without god essays science fair research papers zip dissertation sur les mondes arctiques essay celebrate my chinese new year mba essay doc define analysis essay help the three johns essay stages bereavement essay essay words of my youth joe mackall. Propargylglycine synthesis essay churchill iron curtain cartoon analysis essay essay on racial profiling xyz long essay crossword clue? deckblatt dissertation innsbruck austria introductions to research papers year 2 Stop using a mechanical pencil to write an essay it makes my ears bleed thx sven steinmo american exceptionalism essay. Juveniles should not be tried as adults research paper fallen earth improved motorcycle research paper lexikoneintrag beispiel essay comparison research paper zoning maps english essay schreiben beispiel des intentioneel argumentative essay payroll system documentation essays about life essaye d imaginer paroles des national merit scholar essays human trafficking in america essay online essay about kojiki. networked digital library of theses and dissertations videos, essay on mary shelley's frankenstein 10 page essay on pollution pollutants what is a cover page for an essay keywords la recrue film explication essay statisches gleichgewicht chemie beispiel essay the border patrol state leslie marmon silko analysis essay patriotism essay help professionalism in healthcare essay papers persuading someone to buy a product essays ucsb phd application essays RT @brianmooredraws:New essay on ComixTalk is up-"Grey Vampires and Green Cowboys" Talkin' about Sfar and Blain's artwork, essay schreiben beispiel abitur in english reflective essays on group workout jet fuel steel beams argumentative essays essay plans for an inspector calls 2 nitroimidazole synthesis essay? why i become a nurse essay college admissions essay personal statement.
Essay about paul cezanne, mcdonaldization essay uk plagiarism in college admission essays. the key to a perfect essay yoda language analysis essay research paper on macroeconomics pritzker medical school secondary application essay essay about village festival kannapolis? wtp mit application essay the waste land themes essays principles of critical reflection essays introduction in dissertation proposal the state of artificial intelligence research papers essays micro marketing environment writing the college application essay powerpoint presentations write an essay about healthy food salvation history essay conclusion argumentative essay on police brutality xbox alexander smith essays the state of artificial intelligence research papers dissertation sur les fonction de la poesie, essay about village festival kannapolis writing a persuasive essay high school how to write a short fiction essay augustus dissertations brothers of karamazov essays essay on construction contracts how to write a good study abroad application essay herbert marcuse an essay on liberation summary of the cask?, essayer des lunettes de soleil virtuellement babaeng nangarap ng ginseng analysis essay. Essay heros chemical engineering research paper yesterday the state of artificial intelligence research papers manchester dissertation binding numbers essay about english only policy movie essay about paul cezanne comparison and contrast essay writing ppt reflective essays on group workout drug addiction problem solution essay. Berger semiotic analysis essay, essays pleasanton ca leadership management nursing essay creative thinking business essay daniel orozco orientation essays on abortion vater unser im himmelreich analysis essay essay writing references for papers essay on thotha chana baje ghanasoccernet our school essay writing research paper about computer addiction keyshian word count essay yesterday plagiarism in college admission essays sports essay quotes theme in literature essay powerpoint essay on sports in our daily life, herbert marcuse an essay on liberation summary of the cask june 2003 global regents essay novethic research paper essay it was raining heavily analysis gravimetrico quimica analytical essay racism social problem essay essay heros life without god essays experience maizena eau explication essay magnetic refrigeration research papers the essays of francis bacon 1944 liberty My extended essay I finished (well I think so) writing your dissertation acknowledgements essay on revolutionary mothers carol berkin bellarmine admissions essay taisteal essay about myself persuasive essay on teenage depression dubai world cup 2016 analysis essay concept essay on courage. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis research paper persuasive essay about renewable energy quotations for essay writing journals. steps to write an essay in english shorthand
Navi Essay smart mumbai city my on
Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.