Writing a convincing cover letter is a key part of landing more interviews. Even with weak experience, a well-written letter can help you get your foot in the door. Follow our guide to get yours right.
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Table of Contents
- How to Write a Cover Letter – 5 Rules and 7 Sections
- Formatting Guidelines – (Margins, Fonts, Alignment)
- Defeating Applicant Tracking Systems
How to Write a Cover Letter: 5 Rules & 7 Sections
If you follow the 5 rules and include the 7 sections outlined below, you’ll write a masterful letter that will land you more interviews.
If you need inspiration, browse our huge database of cover letter examples by industry.
The 5 Golden Rules
1. All cover letters should follow the same 7 section template outlined below – While yours will probably only be four paragraphs, we’ve separated it into 7 must-have “sections” that need explanation.
2. All cover letters should be one page or less – You won’t land a job by writing a novel. Some hiring managers even say that you shouldn’t write more than 250 words — though that is up for debate. However, make sure it isn’t too short either.
3. Make sure it’s error free – It goes without saying, but we’ll say it again. Check your cover letter for spelling mistakes and grammar errors. It can happen to the best of us. Don’t be arrogant, just double check.
4. Write like a human being, and not like an awkward robot – Here’s an example of what some people think of is “good” writing. “I am thoroughly delighted by the prospect of joining your illustrious organization, and believe I would make a potent addition were you to acquire my requisite skills and abilities.” That’s a terrible sentence. If you sound like a robot that has memorized a thesaurus, you’re doing it wrong.
Here’s what that sentence really says: “I’m thrilled to be applying for your company, because I have proven skills that will make a strong addition to your team.” Just say it that way — like a human being.
Cover letters are not the place to be overly creative. If you’re thinking of writing something wacky, goofy, interesting, different, or unique — don’t.
5. Don’t be a bombastic weirdo – Cover letters are not the place to be overly creative. If you’re thinking of writing something wacky, goofy, interesting, different, or unique — don’t. Doing so will be a dead end for your job prospects.
But that doesn’t mean you have to be a robot, or write with a dry tone. You’ll have the opportunity to show your creativity in a smart way — the key is to understand what’s acceptable, and what’s out of bounds.
So what is acceptable? Read on to learn everything you need to make that 7 section template do good work, and land you more interviews.
7 Must-Have Sections
Section 1: Contact Details (Yours and the Hiring Manger’s)
Include the following information at the top of your cover letter.
First, your contact details
- Your Name
- Your Address
- Phone Number
- Linkedin URL (Optional)
Next, the date and hiring manager’s contact details
- Today’s Date
- Company Address
- Company Phone Number
- Hiring Manager’s Email Address
Here’s what that would look like:
Section 2: The Greeting
Believe it or not, the way you say ‘hello’ to someone you’ve never met makes an impression. If your greeting is clunky and sounds bad, it will spoil the rest of your cover letter, even if it’s awesome. Imagine sitting for a four course meal — if your appetizer is a rotten egg, how are you going to feel about the roast chicken?
The clunkiest greeting phrase in English is the following: “To whom it may concern”. Don’t serve up that rotten egg to the hiring manager. Here’s another bad one, “Dear Sir or Madam”. Only people wearing top hats can say that.
Here’s what you should do instead: do your best to research who the hiring manager is at the company. We’re aware that sometimes it’s not possible to find out who the hiring manager is. So what can you do in that case?
1. Find out the name of the Department Manager –It’s likely this person will be involved with hiring you. Even if they are not the direct hiring manager, addressing the letter at them will show that you put in some effort. But what if you can’t find this person’s name?
2. Find out the name of the Human Resources director – You can address your cover letter to him or her, and it will still show that you’ve put in some effort to connect with a real human being. For bonus points, you could ask the HR who is responsible for hiring, and then address the correct person. But what if you can’t find the HR director’s name?
3. Find out the name of the CEO or Vice President – If you can’t find the department manager or HR director, you’re likely dealing with a very small or new startup. In this case, the CEO, Vice President, or someone else that sounds important may be responsible for hiring.
Warning: You also may be dealing with a scam company. Companies that are short on details may be hiding something.
If you can’t find *their* names either? Simply write:
“Dear Hiring Manager,”
It is the best you can do. And it’s way better than the rotten egg, “To whom it may concern”.
Section 3: Introduce Yourself
The first sentence
Don’t start with: “My name is _____”. Your name is already in the contact details at the top of the cover letter!
Do start with: Getting straight to the point. Tell the hiring manager that you’re excited to be applying for the job.
You may have read elsewhere on the web that you should “grab attention” with a passionate introduction that is “humorous.” Don’t do that, unless you want to look like a goofball. Hiring managers are not children that you need to entertain — they are serious professionals. Grabbing their attention will require sophistication — not clownish haw-haw jokes.
Examples of Introductory Statements
- I’m thrilled to be applying for the open ____ position at [Target Company].
- I’m writing to apply for the new and exciting role at [Target Company].
- I’m glad to have the opportunity to apply for the [job title] job at [Target Company].
The next sentences
It’s easy — tell the hiring manager why you’re excited to be applying for the job. There could be a number of reasons:
1. You like the company – We all have companies that we admire and would like to work for. If you have the lucky opportunity to apply for a company that you like, mention it! Most importantly, tell the hiring manager why you like the company. After all, if you tell someone you love the company and can’t explain why, it’s going to look like a lie.
2. You think the the opportunity is interesting – Even if you don’t know the company, the job role itself may pique your interest, or line up with your passions. If that’s the case, tell the hiring manager why it’s interesting to you, and how it fits with your passions.
3. You have the perfect (or related) skill set to perform the job well – Maybe you don’t like the company, or think the opportunity is interesting. But you need the job, so you’d like to land it anyway — that’s perfectly normal. The hiring manager likely knows it’s not a dream job, so lying about your passion for the role would backfire. In this case, just emphasize that you’re perfect for the job because you have the required skill set.
Ideally, you’d use all three of these reasons to explain your excitement for applying for the job. While #1 and #2 are optional, #3 — emphasizing that you have the right skills — is essential. If you can’t use any of those reasons, you should think twice about applying for that job.
Section 4: Pitch and Prove Yourself
This is the part the hiring manager cares about the most — he or she needs to see hard evidence that you can actually do the job.
In the meat of your cover letter, you’ll prove that you have the right skills for the job. This is the part the hiring manager cares about the most — he or she needs to see hard evidence that you can actually handle the work. Choose two to three of your biggest achievements related to the job role, and include them in your writing.
In the following do’s/dont’s section, we’ve written the same cover letter twice to show the difference between what’s bad and what’s good.
Don’t write: Generic, boring, and cliche’d sentences.
‘Don’t write’ example: “I’m a quick starter with bundles of enthusiasm and real team player. I’m also really hard working, have excellent interpersonal skills, and am also highly motivated. In my past job, I sold electronics to customers and was considered highly successful. Overall, management was proud of my work and would frequently commend me.
- Blue – cliches
- Pink – generic
- Orange – boring
Do write: Precise & detailed information that is quantified.
‘Do write’ example: “During my first year at Electronic Appliances LLC, I increased my department’s revenue by over 30%. My passion for the electronic retail industry reveals itself in my approach to my customers; I recently won a regional award for maintaining a 95% customer satisfaction rate, and an award for exceeding an 8%month-on-month sales target over one year.
- Blue – precise & detailed
- Pink – quantified
As you can see, the second cover letter gives you much clearer idea of this salesperson’s skill. You should aspire to reach this level of clarity, because it will make you stand out from your competition.
Section 5: Conclusion
Your conclusion should accomplish the following goals:
To make your cover letter convincing, you should emphasize that your proven skills will help the company achieve its goals.
1. Re-iterating that you’re excited for the job, and that you’re the best choice to help the company – To make your cover letter convincing, you should emphasize that your proven skills will help the company achieve its goals. It will require doing some research on your part, but the end result will be an application that makes the hiring manager say, “Wow, this person gets it.”
2. Letting them know you’re available for an interview anytime – If you’re in the same city, emphasize that you’d love to have a face-to-face interview. Don’t be picky about timing in your cover letter, even if you’re busy. Let them contact you first, and then hammer out an appropriate meeting time.
3. Thanking them for taking the time to read your cover letter – A quick “thank you” goes a long way to show that you’re a respectful and empathetic person. Reading job applications is a chore. By now, you’ve done your best to jazz your letter up and make it a quick, easy, and worthwhile read — but the hiring manager has probably read several. Thank them for reading yours until the end.
Section 6: Signing off
We recommend you stick to the following sign offs:
- Best regards,
- Warm regards,
- Kind regards,
- All the best,
(Optional) Section 7: The Hook – P.S.
P.S. Do you want to add a little flavor to your cover letter? Adding a postscript (P.S.) is the perfect way add a little hook that will distinguish you even more from other candidates.
Let’s say you found the hiring manager’s Linkedin page, and you noticed that you share an interest, or worked at the same company, or attended the same University, etc.
While it’s not really appropriate to put this information into the body of your writing, the P.S. is a great place to be a little more informal. It’s your opportunity to wink at the hiring manager and show some personality in a smart way.
Something like this: “P.S. I noticed that we’re both alumni of Clemson University with degrees in Marketing. Did you know Professor Jones? Scariest professor ever, but one of the most influential.”
Cover Letter Formatting Guidelines (Fonts, Margins, Alignment)
Are you having trouble making your letter look like it’s one page, or interested in creating your own design? Make sure you follow some basic margin, font, and styling guidelines.
- Left and Right – Should always be equal. Never below 0.7″, and never above 1.15″
- Top – Never below 0.5″, and never above 0.65″
- Bottom – Never above 1.0″, never below 0.6″
Here are two examples using those margin guidelines above.
In the first, we use the maximum margin settings for top, bottom, left and right margins. This allows you to make your cover letter look like a full page, if you don’t have enough content.
That’s why this one is called the “Space User”.
In the second example, we use the minimum margin settings for top, bottom, left and right margins. This allows the most possible text to be put on the page.
That’s why this one is called the “Space Saver”.
- Style – Typically, font choice is a matter of preference. We suggest you stick with Georgia, Arial, or Times New Roman.
- Size – Don’t go below an 11-point font. Really, you should stick with 12, and play with the margins if you need to fit the content onto one page.
- Left aligned – Anything else looks strange.
Defeating Applicant Tracking Systems
Some Applicant Tracking Software (ATS) will read your cover letter to assess if you’re a good fit for the job, (and they’ll also look at your resume.) Basically, the software will read your cover letter, and determine if you’ve included enough job-relevant keywords. If you did include enough keywords — congratulations, your application will be looked at by a real human being. If you didn’t include enough keywords, the ATS will assume that you’re not a relevant candidate, and reject you.
What does it mean to “include keywords”?
A good way to figure out which keywords you should use is to look at the hiring manager’s job description for the role you’re applying for.
Ever job title and industry has different tasks, duties, and tools associated with it. For instance, if you’re an accountant, you’re going to manage accounts and balance budgets, use Excel or SQL Databases, and generate financial reports. All of the text in pink are keywords that an ATS would read if it was judging and accounting resume or cover letter.
The takeaway: If you forget to include keywords (or you simply can’t), you’re going to get rejected.
How many keywords, and which ones, should you include?
A good way to figure out which keywords you should use is to look at the hiring manager’s job description for the role you’re applying for. The job description will have most of the keywords you should include — do your best to sprinkle them where you can. As far as how many keywords you should include — just be natural. Don’t stuff your cover letter with keywords (or your resume for that matter).
Table of Contents:
- What is a Functional Resume?
- The Structure of a Functional Resume Format
- Functional Resume Samples by Industry
- Downloadable Functional Resume Template Pack
What is a Functional Resume?
The main purpose of writing a functional resume is to hide the fact that you have imperfect work experience, or because you’re transferring industries. If you’re reading this page, it’s because you’ve had periods of unemployment, and you aren’t sure how to conceal them on your resume. You absolutely must conceal those periods of time, or hiring managers will think that you are a high-risk hire.
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If you have periods of unemployment, you must explain those gaps on your resume. The ultimate goal of a functional resume is to make the hiring manager think your work experience is as “normal” as possible. Don’t worry — most people don’t have perfect work experience records, so you’re not at a complete disadvantage. There are a number of strategies you can employ to cover up gaps on your resume. To get an idea of how a functional resume can conceal your work gaps, you must understand the structure of this format.
The Structure of a Functional Resume Format
1. Contact Information
Adding your contact information is by far the easiest part of the resume writing process. Simply include your name, phone number, E-mail, and address, then you’re ready to move on. In regards to styling, your name should be the largest text on the page (20-24pt font is a safe range). Finally, if you have a personal website that you believe will help your case, then be sure to add it in this section.
2. Qualifications Summary
For those of you with spotty employment records and periods of unemployment, the Qualifications Summary is an ideal way to begin your resume. It allows you to de-emphasize the specific dates that you’ve worked professionally, because your record may reveal gaps in employment.
A Qualifications Summary also has the added benefit of letting you put your best traits and achievements from your work history (and educational history) right at the top of your resume.
The main purpose of writing a functional resume is to hide the fact that you have imperfect work experience, or because you’re transferring industries.
Check out our resume paper comparison to find out which kind of paper is best suited for a functional resume.
Therefore, in this section you should should include 4-5 examples of your most relevant personal achievements. By “relevant”, we mean that they should be relevant to the job you’re applying for.
Read our in-depth guide about writing a Qualifications Summary here, so that you have the highest chance of impressing the hiring manager.
3. Relevant Skills
Similar to a combination resume format, the candidate’s skills are more important than their work history in a functional format. If you check out the samples below, you will notice that this section looks similar to a traditional Professional Experience section. Again, this is due to the fact that the applicant has a spotty work history or wants to change their career path.
As you can see above, the key to the skills section for a functional format is to first choose at least three skills that are applicable to the job you are applying for. For each skill, come up with 3-4 bullet points that help provide evidence of your abilities.
Remember that adding numbers to your resume instills confidence in the employer that are able to fulfill the requirements of the position. Aim to include at least one quantified bullet point for each skill and you will be sure to catch the attention of the hiring manager.
4. Professional Experience (dates optional)
Missing Work Experience Concealer Tip #1: Label Your Period of Unemployment
You may have legitimate reasons for being unemployed — taking care of an ill relative, being a parent, doing an independent study, or being a full-time student. Use these to label your period of unemployment — here are some examples:
- Full-Time Student
- Independent Study
- Full-Time Parent
- Family Management (or Home Management)
- Adventure Travel (or Travels to…)
- Personal Travel
Do not ever admit to being unemployed (even if due to a recession) or missing work due to an illness.
You must show on your resume that you did something during those gaps of unemployment. However, they must not be explained as a result of:
- Medical issues like rehab, or
- Unemployment due to a recession.
If you reveal these causes, hiring managers will think that you are a “high risk” hire.
Missing Work Experience Concealer Tip #2: Do Not Include Months
In the resumes samples on this page, you’ll notice that the candidates have left off the periods of employment in the Work History section. Therefore, even if they had an employment gap during the middle of the year 2014, it appears as though they’ve been consistently working.
This is also an acceptable way of “fudging” your resume, which you can explain later during your interview.
5. Education (can also be #4)
For a functional style, the Education section is all about the basics. Unless your educational experience directly relates to the job you are applying for then all you need to include is the name of the university or organization, city and state, the degree you received, date you graduated, and your GPA.
Functional Resume Samples by Industry
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Check out our resume sample library for additional food service examples.
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Not what you’re looking for? View our other customer service resume examples.
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Want more teacher resume examples? Stop by our sample library.
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Find more construction resume examples here.
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Find more office work resume examples here.
Downloadable Functional Resume Template Pack
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Functional Resume Template Pack