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Sample Annotated Bibliography Harvard

This is an example of an annotation with its appropriately referenced source, using APA referencing. This example is from Jingjing Jiang's annotated bibliography written for a Massey University assignment in 2006.

Thaman, K.H. (1994). Ecotourism-friendly or the new sell? One woman's view of ecotourism in Pacific Island countries. In A. Emberson-Bain (Ed.), Sustainable development or malignant growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island women (pp. 183-193). Suva, Fiji: Marama Publications.

Thaman argues that there is an inherent contradiction between cultural conservation and ecotourism business: the latter always leads to the erosion of the former. Thaman addresses the importance of indigenous culture, and recognises the gradually increasing phenomenon of cultural alienation. She rejects applying the Western model of ecotourism in the Pacific, and incisively maintains that ecotourism has become a new sell in Pacific Islands, promoted by profits. Consequently, she advocates "ecocultural tourism development" as an alternative form of development. Further, Thaman touches on the issue of gender, and emphasises the role of education in improving people's consciousness.

Like Simmons (1993), Thaman critically examines the crucial problems of ecotourism in developing countries, rather than accepting it as unproblematic. Similar to Scheyvens (1999), Thaman emphasises the importance of local people's full participation, and social and political empowerment, but in different ways. Also like Scheyvens, Thaman believes that it is possible to promote both development and conservation. Thaman's proposal of "ecocultural tourism development" is fairly perceptive, constructive, and more radical than Scheyven's community-based approach. Although Thaman provides incisive views on ecotourism, it is difficult to change people's perceptions radically, and it is unrealistic for foreign donors to relinquish certain rights and provide aid unconditionally. Moreover, Thaman fails to find any solutions derived from the local community's own perspective - what these people can do for their own sake, instead of depending on others.

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Last updated on 4 March, 2013

What is a Bibliography?

A bibliography is a list of sources a writer has used, or intends to use, for researching a particular topic. An annotation is a brief description of the content and focus of a given work cited and, usually, a consideration of the source’s usefulness for research in the topic area. One of your assignments for this class requires compiling an annotated bibliography for your own research topic.

Preparing annotations

There are several excellent guides to writing annotated bibliographies online, including Annotated Bibliographies from Purdue and How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography from Cornell University Library. Your instructor will advise you on the level of detail appropriate for the annotated bibliography you write for this course. Remember to keep in mind as you read your sources what questions you will want to answer in your annotation.

Citing Your Sources

Use the MLA Citation Style. Helpful resources for using the MLA style can be found in Writing Resources, as well as in these two tools:


Citation Management Tools

For your convenience, Harvard Libraries offer citation management tools including RefWorks, EndNote, Zotero, and Mendeley. These optional tools offer a faster way to collect, store, and manage reference information, research notes, and documents. They interface with library catalogs and electronic resources, from which bibliographic data may be exported, and work with your word processor to help you manage in-text citations and automatically build bibliographies in nearly any format (the addition of annotations by hand is also accommodated).