In many ways the design of a study is more important than the analysis. A badly designed study can never be retrieved, whereas a poorly analysed one can usually be reanalysed. (1) Consideration of design is also important because the design of a study will govern how the data are to be analysed.
Most medical studies consider an input, which may be a medical intervention or exposure to a potentially toxic compound, and an output, which is some measure of health that the intervention is supposed to affect. The simplest way to categorise studies is with reference to the time sequence in which the input and output are studied.
The most powerful studies are prospective studies, and the paradigm for these is the randomised controlled trial. In this subjects with a disease are randomised to one of two (or more) treatments, one of which may be a control treatment. Methods of randomisation have been described in Chapter 3. The importance of randomisation is that we Imow in the long run treatment groups will be balanced in known and unknown prognostic factors. It is important that the treatments are concurrent - that the active and control treatments occur in the same period of time.
A parallel group design is one in which treatment and control are allocated to different individuals. To allow for the therapeutic effect of simply being given treatment, the control may consist of a placebo, an inert substance that is physically identical to the active compound. If possible a study should be double blinded - neither the investigator nor the subject being aware of what treatment the subject is undergoing. Sometimes it is impossible to blind the subjects, for example when the treatment is some form of health education, but often it is possible to ensure that the people evaluating the outcome are unaware of the treatment. An example of a parallel group trial is given in table 7.1, in which different bran preparations have been tested on different individuals.
A matched design comes about when randomisation is between matched pairs, such as in Exercise 6.2, in which randomisation was between different parts of a patient's body.
A crossover study is one in which two or more treatments are applied sequentially to the same subject. The advantages are that each subject then acts as their own control and so fewer subjects may be required. The main disadvantage is that there may be a carry over effect in that the action of the second treatment is affected by the first treatment. An example of a crossover trial is given in table 7.2, in which different dosages of bran are compared within the same individual. A number of excellent books are available on clinical trials.(2, 3)
One of the major threats to validity of a clinical trial is compliance. Patients are likely to drop out of trials if the treatment is unpleasant, and often fail to take medication as prescribed. It is usual to adopt a pragmatic approach and analyse by intention to treat , that is analyse the study by the treatment that the subject was assigned to, not the one they actually took. The alternative is to analyse per protocol or on study . Drop outs should of course be reported by treatment group. A checklist for writing reports on clinical trials is available.(4, 5)
A quasi experimental design is one in which treatment allocation is not random. An example of this is given in table 9.1 in which injuries are compared in two dropping zones. This is subject to potential biases in that the reason why a person is allocated to a particular dropping zone may be related to their risk of a sprained ankle.
A cohort study is one in which subjects, initially disease free, are followed up over a period of time. Some will be exposed to some risk factor, for example cigarette smoking. The outcome may be death and we may be interested in relating the risk factor to a particular cause of death. Clearly, these have to be large, long term studies and tend to be costly to carry out. If records have been kept routinely in the past then a historical cohort study may be carried out, an example of which is the appendicitis study discussed in Chapter 6. Here, the cohort is all cases of appendicitis admitted over a given period and a sample of the records could be inspected retrospectively. A typical example would be to look at birth weight records and relate birth weight to disease in later life.
These studies differ in essence from retrospective studies, which start with diseased subjects and then examine possible exposure. Such case control studies are commonly undertaken as a preliminary investigation, because they are relatively quick and inexpensive. The comparison of the blood pressure in farmers and printers given in Chapter 3 is an example of a case control study. It is retrospective because we argued from the blood pressure to the occupation and did not start out with subjects assigned to occupation. There are many confounding factors in case control studies. For example, does occupational stress cause high blood pressure, or do people prone to high blood pressure choose stressful occupations? A particular problem is recall bias, in that the cases, with the disease, are more motivated to recall apparently trivial episodes in the past than controls, who are disease free.
Cross sectional studies are common and include surveys, laboratory experiments and studies to examine the prevalence of a disease. Studies validating instruments and questionnaires are also cross sectional studies. The study of urinary concentration of lead in children described in Chapter 1 and the study of the relationship between height and pulmonary anatomical dead space in Chapter 11 were also cross sectional studies.
One of the most common questions asked of a statistician about design is the number of patients to include. It is an important question, because if a study is too small it will not be able to answer the question posed, and would be a waste of time and money. It could also be deemed unethical because patients may be put at risk with no apparent benefit. However, studies should not be too large because resources would be wasted if fewer patients would have sufficed. The sample size depends on four critical quantities: the type I and type II error rates α and β(discussed in Chapter 5), the variability of the data σ², and the effect size d. In a trial the effect size is the amount by which we would expect the two treatments to differ, or is the difference that would be clinically worthwhile.
Usually α and β are fixed at 5% and 20% (or 10%), respectively. A simple formula for a two group parallel trial with a continuous outcome is that the required sample size per group is given by for two sided α of 5% and β of 20%. For example, in a trial to reduce blood pressure, if a clinically worthwhile effect for diastolic blood pressure is 5 mmHg and the between subjects standard deviation is 10 mmHg, we would require n = 16 x 100/25 = 64 patients per group in the study. The sample size goes up as the square of the standard deviation of the data (the variance) and goes down inversely as the square of the effect size. Doubling the effect size reduces the sample size by four - it is much easier to detect large effects! In practice, the sample size is often fixed by other criteria, such as finance or resources, and the formula is used to determine a realistic effect size. If this is too large, then the study will have to be abandoned or increased in size. Machin et al. give advice on a sample size calculations for a wide variety of study designs.(6)
Choice of test
In terms of selecting a statistical test, the most important question is "what is the main study hypothesis?" In some cases there is no hypothesis; the investigator just wants to "see what is there". For example, in a prevalence study there is no hypothesis to test, and the size of the study is determined by how accurately the investigator wants to determine the prevalence. If there is no hypothesis, then there is no statistical test. It is important to decide a priori which hypotheses are confirmatory (that is, are testing some presupposed relationship), and which are exploratory (are suggested by the data). No single study can support a whole series of hypotheses.
A sensible plan is to limit severely the number of confirmatory hypotheses. Although it is valid to use statistical tests on hypotheses suggested by the data, the P values should be used only as guidelines, and the results treated as very tentative until confirmed by subsequent studies. A useful guide is to use a Bonferroni correction, which states simply that if one is testing n independent hypotheses, one should use a significance level of 0.05/n. Thus if there were two independent hypotheses a result would be declared significant only if P<0.025. Note that, since tests are rarely independent, this is a very conservative procedure - one unlikely to reject the null hypothesis.
The investigator should then ask "are the data independent?" This can be difficult to decide but as a rule of thumb results on the same individual, or from matched individuals, are not independent. Thus results from a crossover trial, or from a case control study in which the controls were matched to the cases by age, sex and social class, are not independent. It is generally true that the analysis should reflect the design, and so a matched design should be followed by a matched analysis. Results measured over time require special care.(7) One of the most common mistakes in statistical analysis is to treat dependent variables as independent. For example, suppose we were looking at treatment of leg ulcers, in which some people had an ulcer on each leg. We might have 20 subjects with 30 ulcers but the number of independent pieces of information is 20 because the state of an ulcer on one leg may influence the state of the ulcer on the other leg and an analysis that considered ulcers as independent observations would be incorrect. For a correct analysis of mixed paired and unpaired data consult a statistician.
The next question is "what types of data are being measured?" The test used should be determined by the data. The choice of test for matched or paired data is described in and for independent data in .
It is helpful to decide the input variables and the outcome variables. For example in a clinical trial the input variable is type of treatment - a nominal variable - and the outcome may be some clinical measure perhaps Normally distributed. The required test is then the t test (table 13.2). However, if the input variable is continuous, say a clinical score, and the outcome is nominal, say cured or not cured, logistic regression is the required analysis. A t test in this case may help but would not give us what we require, namely the probability of a cure for a given value of the clinical score. As another example, suppose we have a cross sectional study in which we ask a random sample of people whether they think their general practitioner is doing a good job, on a five point scale, and we wish to ascertain whether women have a higher opinion of general practitioners than men have. The input variable is gender, which is nominal. The outcome variable is the five point ordinal scale. Each person's opinion is independent of the others, so we have independent data. From we should use a χ² test for trend, or a Mann-Whitney U test (with correction for ties). Note, however, if some people share a general practitioner and others do not, then the data are not independent and a more sophisticated analysis is called for.
Note that these tables should be considered as guides only, and each case should be considered on its merits.
(a) If data are censored.
(b) The Kruskal-Wallis test is used for comparing ordinal or non-Normal variables for more than two groups, and is a generalisation of the Mann-Whitney U test. The technique is beyond the scope of this book, but is described in more advanced books and is available in common software (Epi-Info, Minitab, SPSS).
(c) Analysis of variance is a general technique, and one version (one way analysis of variance) is used to compare Normally distributed variables for more than two groups, and is the parametric equivalent of the Kruskal-Wallis test.
(d) If the outcome variable is the dependent variable, then provided the residuals (see ) are plausibly Normal, then the distribution of the independent variable is not important.
(e) There are a number of more advanced techniques, such as Poisson regression, for dealing with these situations. However, they require certain assumptions and it is often easier to either dichotomise the outcome variable or treat it as continuous.
- Campbell MJ, Machin D. In: Medical Statistics: A Common-sense Approach , 2nd edn. Chichester: Wiley, 1993:2.
- Pocock SJ. Clinical trials: A Practical Approach . Chichester: Wiley, 1982.
- Senn SJ. The Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials . Chichester: Wiley, 1992.
- Gardner MJ, Altman DG (eds) In: Statistics with Confidence . BMJ Publishing Group, 1989:103-5.
- Gardner MJ, Machin D, Campbell MJ. The use of checklists in assessing the statistical content of medical studies. BMJ 1986; 292 :810-12.
- Macbin D, Campbell MJ, Payers P, Pinol A. Statistical Tables for the Design of Clinical Studies . Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1996.
- Matthews JNS, Altman DG, Campbell MJ, Royston JP. Analysis of senal measurements in medical research. BMJ 1990; 300 :230-5.
- Altman DG. Practical Statistics for Medical Research . London: Chapman & Hall, 1991.
- Armitage P, Berry G. In: Statistical Methods in Medical Research . Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
State the type of study described in each of the following.
13.1 To investigate the relationship between egg consumption and heart disease, a group of patients admitted to hospital with myocardial infarction were questioned about their egg consumption. A group of age and sex matched patients admitted to a fracture clinic were also questioned about their egg consumption using an identical protocol.
13.2 To investigate the relationship between certain solvents and cancer, all employees at a factory were questioned about their exposure to an industrial solvent, and the amount and length of exposure measured. These subjects were regularly monitored, and after 10 years a copy of the death certificate for all those who had died was obtained.
13.3 A survey was conducted of all nurses employed at a particular hospital. Among other questions, the questionnaire asked about the grade of the nurse and whether she was satisfied with her career prospects.
13.4 To evaluate a new back school, patients with lower back pain were randomly allocated to either the new school or to conventional occupational therapy. After 3 months they were questioned about their back pain, and observed lifting a weight by independent monitors.
13.5 A new triage system has been set up at the local Accident and Emergency Unit. To evaluate it the waiting times of patients were measured for 6 months and compared with the waiting times at a comparable nearby hospital.
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The Effects of a Supported Employment Program on Psychosocial Indicators
for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
William M.K. Trochim
Running Head: SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT
This paper describes the psychosocial effects of a program of supported employment (SE) for persons with severe mental illness. The SE program involves extended individualized supported employment for clients through a Mobile Job Support Worker (MJSW) who maintains contact with the client after job placement and supports the client in a variety of ways. A 50% simple random sample was taken of all persons who entered the Thresholds Agency between 3/1/93 and 2/28/95 and who met study criteria. The resulting 484 cases were randomly assigned to either the SE condition (treatment group) or the usual protocol (control group) which consisted of life skills training and employment in an in-house sheltered workshop setting. All participants were measured at intake and at 3 months after beginning employment, on two measures of psychological functioning (the BPRS and GAS) and two measures of self esteem (RSE and ESE). Significant treatment effects were found on all four measures, but they were in the opposite direction from what was hypothesized. Instead of functioning better and having more self esteem, persons in SE had lower functioning levels and lower self esteem. The most likely explanation is that people who work in low-paying service jobs in real world settings generally do not like them and experience significant job stress, whether they have severe mental illness or not. The implications for theory in psychosocial rehabilitation are considered.
The Effects of a Supported Employment Program on Psychosocial Indicators for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
Over the past quarter century a shift has occurred from traditional institution-based models of care for persons with severe mental illness (SMI) to more individualized community-based treatments. Along with this, there has been a significant shift in thought about the potential for persons with SMI to be "rehabilitated" toward lifestyles that more closely approximate those of persons without such illness. A central issue is the ability of a person to hold a regular full-time job for a sustained period of time. There have been several attempts to develop novel and radical models for program interventions designed to assist persons with SMI to sustain full-time employment while living in the community. The most promising of these have emerged from the tradition of psychiatric rehabilitation with its emphases on individual consumer goal setting, skills training, job preparation and employment support (Cook, Jonikas and Solomon, 1992). These are relatively new and field evaluations are rare or have only recently been initiated (Cook and Razzano, 1992; Cook, 1992). Most of the early attempts to evaluate such programs have naturally focused almost exclusively on employment outcomes. However, theory suggests that sustained employment and living in the community may have important therapeutic benefits in addition to the obvious economic ones. To date, there have been no formal studies of the effects of psychiatric rehabilitation programs on key illness-related outcomes. To address this issue, this study seeks to examine the effects of a new program of supported employment on psychosocial outcomes for persons with SMI.
Over the past several decades, the theory of vocational rehabilitation has experienced two major stages of evolution. Original models of vocational rehabilitation were based on the idea of sheltered workshop employment. Clients were paid a piece rate and worked only with other individuals who were disabled. Sheltered workshops tended to be "end points" for persons with severe and profound mental retardation since few ever moved from sheltered to competitive employment (Woest, Klein & Atkins, 1986). Controlled studies of sheltered workshop performance of persons with mental illness suggested only minimal success (Griffiths, 1974) and other research indicated that persons with mental illness earned lower wages, presented more behavior problems, and showed poorer workshop attendance than workers with other disabilities (Whitehead, 1977; Ciardiello, 1981).
In the 1980s, a new model of services called Supported Employment (SE) was proposed as less expensive and more normalizing for persons undergoing rehabilitation (Wehman, 1985). The SE model emphasizes first locating a job in an integrated setting for minimum wage or above, and then placing the person on the job and providing the training and support services needed to remain employed (Wehman, 1985). Services such as individualized job development, one-on-one job coaching, advocacy with co-workers and employers, and "fading" support were found to be effective in maintaining employment for individuals with severe and profound mental retardation (Revell, Wehman & Arnold, 1984). The idea that this model could be generalized to persons with all types of severe disabilities, including severe mental illness, became commonly accepted (Chadsey-Rusch & Rusch, 1986).
One of the more notable SE programs was developed at Thresholds, the site for the present study, which created a new staff position called the mobile job support worker (MJSW) and removed the common six month time limit for many placements. MJSWs provide ongoing, mobile support and intervention at or near the work site, even for jobs with high degrees of independence (Cook & Hoffschmidt, 1993). Time limits for many placements were removed so that clients could stay on as permanent employees if they and their employers wished. The suspension of time limits on job placements, along with MJSW support, became the basis of SE services delivered at Thresholds.
There are two key psychosocial outcome constructs of interest in this study. The first is the overall psychological functioning of the person with SMI. This would include the specification of severity of cognitive and affective symptomotology as well as the overall level of psychological functioning. The second is the level of self-reported self esteem of the person. This was measured both generally and with specific reference to employment.
The key hypothesis of this study is:
HO: A program of supported employment will result in either no change or negative effects on psychological functioning and self esteem.
which will be tested against the alternative:
HA: A program of supported employment will lead to positive effects on psychological functioning and self esteem.
The population of interest for this study is all adults with SMI residing in the U.S. in the early 1990s. The population that is accessible to this study consists of all persons who were clients of the Thresholds Agency in Chicago, Illinois between the dates of March 1, 1993 and February 28, 1995 who met the following criteria: 1) a history of severe mental illness (e.g., either schizophrenia, severe depression or manic-depression); 2) a willingness to achieve paid employment; 3) their primary diagnosis must not include chronic alcoholism or hard drug use; and 4) they must be 18 years of age or older. The sampling frame was obtained from records of the agency. Because of the large number of clients who pass through the agency each year (e.g., approximately 500 who meet the criteria) a simple random sample of 50% was chosen for inclusion in the study. This resulted in a sample size of 484 persons over the two-year course of the study.
On average, study participants were 30 years old and high school graduates (average education level = 13 years). The majority of participants (70%) were male. Most had never married (85%), few (2%) were currently married, and the remainder had been formerly married (13%). Just over half (51%) are African American, with the remainder Caucasian (43%) or other minority groups (6%). In terms of illness history, the members in the sample averaged 4 prior psychiatric hospitalizations and spent a lifetime average of 9 months as patients in psychiatric hospitals. The primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (42%) and severe chronic depression (37%). Participants had spent an average of almost two and one-half years (29 months) at the longest job they ever held.
While the study sample cannot be considered representative of the original population of interest, generalizability was not a primary goal -- the major purpose of this study was to determine whether a specific SE program could work in an accessible context. Any effects of SE evident in this study can be generalized to urban psychiatric agencies that are similar to Thresholds, have a similar clientele, and implement a similar program.
All but one of the measures used in this study are well-known instruments in the research literature on psychosocial functioning. All of the instruments were administered as part of a structured interview that an evaluation social worker had with study participants at regular intervals.
Two measures of psychological functioning were used. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)(Overall and Gorham, 1962) is an 18-item scale that measures perceived severity of symptoms ranging from "somatic concern" and "anxiety" to "depressive mood" and "disorientation." Ratings are given on a 0-to-6 Likert-type response scale where 0="not present" and 6="extremely severe" and the scale score is simply the sum of the 18 items. The Global Assessment Scale (GAS)(Endicott et al, 1976) is a single 1-to-100 rating on a scale where each ten-point increment has a detailed description of functioning (higher scores indicate better functioning). For instance, one would give a rating between 91-100 if the person showed "no symptoms, superior functioning..." and a value between 1-10 if the person "needs constant supervision..."
Two measures of self esteem were used. The first is the Rosenberg Self Esteem (RSE) Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), a 10-item scale rated on a 6-point response format where 1="strongly disagree" and 6="strongly agree" and there is no neutral point. The total score is simply the sum across the ten items, with five of the items being reversals. The second measure was developed explicitly for this study and was designed to measure the Employment Self Esteem (ESE) of a person with SMI. This is a 10-item scale that uses a 4-point response format where 1="strongly disagree" and 4="strongly agree" and there is no neutral point. The final ten items were selected from a pool of 97 original candidate items, based upon high item-total score correlations and a judgment of face validity by a panel of three psychologists. This instrument was deliberately kept simple -- a shorter response scale and no reversal items -- because of the difficulties associated with measuring a population with SMI. The entire instrument is provided in Appendix A.
All four of the measures evidenced strong reliability and validity. Internal consistency reliability estimates using Cronbach's alpha ranged from .76 for ESE to .88 for SE. Test-retest reliabilities were nearly as high, ranging from .72 for ESE to .83 for the BPRS. Convergent validity was evidenced by the correlations within construct. For the two psychological functioning scales the correlation was .68 while for the self esteem measures it was somewhat lower at .57. Discriminant validity was examined by looking at the cross-construct correlations which ranged from .18 (BPRS-ESE) to .41 (GAS-SE).
A pretest-posttest two-group randomized experimental design was used in this study. In notational form, the design can be depicted as:
R O X O
R O O
R = the groups were randomly assigned
O = the four measures (i.e., BPRS, GAS, RSE, and ESE)
X = supported employment
The comparison group received the standard Thresholds protocol which emphasized in-house training in life skills and employment in an in-house sheltered workshop. All participants were measured at intake (pretest) and at three months after intake (posttest).
This type of randomized experimental design is generally strong in internal validity. It rules out threats of history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, mortality and selection interactions. Its primary weaknesses are in the potential for treatment-related mortality (i.e., a type of selection-mortality) and for problems that result from the reactions of participants and administrators to knowledge of the varying experimental conditions. In this study, the drop-out rate was 4% (N=9) for the control group and 5% (N=13) in the treatment group. Because these rates are low and are approximately equal in each group, it is not plausible that there is differential mortality. There is a possibility that there were some deleterious effects due to participant knowledge of the other group's existence (e.g., compensatory rivalry, resentful demoralization). Staff were debriefed at several points throughout the study and were explicitly asked about such issues. There were no reports of any apparent negative feelings from the participants in this regard. Nor is it plausible that staff might have equalized conditions between the two groups. Staff were given extensive training and were monitored throughout the course of the study. Overall, this study can be considered strong with respect to internal validity.
Between 3/1/93 and 2/28/95 each person admitted to Thresholds who met the study inclusion criteria was immediately assigned a random number that gave them a 50/50 chance of being selected into the study sample. For those selected, the purpose of the study was explained, including the nature of the two treatments, and the need for and use of random assignment. Participants were assured confidentiality and were given an opportunity to decline to participate in the study. Only 7 people (out of 491) refused to participate. At intake, each selected sample member was assigned a random number giving them a 50/50 chance of being assigned to either the Supported Employment condition or the standard in-agency sheltered workshop. In addition, all study participants were given the four measures at intake.
All participants spent the initial two weeks in the program in training and orientation. This consisted of life skill training (e.g., handling money, getting around, cooking and nutrition) and job preparation (employee roles, coping strategies). At the end of that period, each participant was assigned to a job site -- at the agency sheltered workshop for those in the control condition, and to an outside employer if in the Supported Employment group. Control participants were expected to work full-time at the sheltered workshop for a three-month period, at which point they were posttested and given an opportunity to obtain outside employment (either Supported Employment or not). The Supported Employment participants were each assigned a case worker -- called a Mobile Job Support Worker (MJSW) -- who met with the person at the job site two times per week for an hour each time. The MJSW could provide any support or assistance deemed necessary to help the person cope with job stress, including counseling or working beside the person for short periods of time. In addition, the MJSW was always accessible by cellular telephone, and could be called by the participant or the employer at any time. At the end of three months, each participant was post-tested and given the option of staying with their current job (with or without Supported Employment) or moving to the sheltered workshop.
There were 484 participants in the final sample for this study, 242 in each treatment. There were 9 drop-outs from the control group and 13 from the treatment group, leaving a total of 233 and 229 in each group respectively from whom both pretest and posttest were obtained. Due to unexpected difficulties in coping with job stress, 19 Supported Employment participants had to be transferred into the sheltered workshop prior to the posttest. In all 19 cases, no one was transferred prior to week 6 of employment, and 15 were transferred after week 8. In all analyses, these cases were included with the Supported Employment group (intent-to-treat analysis) yielding treatment effect estimates that are likely to be conservative.
The major results for the four outcome measures are shown in Figure 1.
Insert Figure 1 about here
It is immediately apparent that in all four cases the null hypothesis has to be accepted -- contrary to expectations, Supported Employment cases did significantly worse on all four outcomes than did control participants.
The mean gains, standard deviations, sample sizes and t-values (t-test for differences in average gain) are shown for the four outcome measures in Table 1.
Insert Table 1 about here
The results in the table confirm the impressions in the figures. Note that all t-values are negative except for the BPRS where high scores indicate greater severity of illness. For all four outcomes, the t-values were statistically significant (p<.05).
The results of this study were clearly contrary to initial expectations. The alternative hypothesis suggested that SE participants would show improved psychological functioning and self esteem after three months of employment. Exactly the reverse happened -- SE participants showed significantly worse psychological functioning and self esteem.
There are two major possible explanations for this outcome pattern. First, it seems reasonable that there might be a delayed positive or "boomerang" effect of employment outside of a sheltered setting. SE cases may have to go through an initial difficult period of adjustment (longer than three months) before positive effects become apparent. This "you have to get worse before you get better" theory is commonly held in other treatment-contexts like drug addiction and alcoholism. But a second explanation seems more plausible -- that people working full-time jobs in real-world settings are almost certainly going to be under greater stress and experience more negative outcomes than those who work in the relatively safe confines of an in-agency sheltered workshop. Put more succinctly, the lesson here might very well be that work is hard. Sheltered workshops are generally very nurturing work environments where virtually all employees share similar illness histories and where expectations about productivity are relatively low. In contrast, getting a job at a local hamburger shop or as a shipping clerk puts the person in contact with co-workers who may not be sympathetic to their histories or forgiving with respect to low productivity. This second explanation seems even more plausible in the wake of informal debriefing sessions held as focus groups with the staff and selected research participants. It was clear in the discussion that SE persons experienced significantly higher job stress levels and more negative consequences. However, most of them also felt that the experience was a good one overall and that even their "normal" co-workers "hated their jobs" most of the time.
One lesson we might take from this study is that much of our contemporary theory in psychiatric rehabilitation is naive at best and, in some cases, may be seriously misleading. Theory led us to believe that outside work was a "good" thing that would naturally lead to "good" outcomes like increased psychological functioning and self esteem. But for most people (SMI or not) work is at best tolerable, especially for the types of low-paying service jobs available to study participants. While people with SMI may not function as well or have high self esteem, we should balance this with the desire they may have to "be like other people" including struggling with the vagaries of life and work that others struggle with.
Future research in this are needs to address the theoretical assumptions about employment outcomes for persons with SMI. It is especially important that attempts to replicate this study also try to measure how SE participants feel about the decision to work, even if traditional outcome indicators suffer. It may very well be that negative outcomes on traditional indicators can be associated with a "positive" impact for the participants and for the society as a whole.
Chadsey-Rusch, J. and Rusch, F.R. (1986). The ecology of the workplace. In J. Chadsey-Rusch, C. Haney-Maxwell, L. A. Phelps and F. R. Rusch (Eds.), School-to-Work Transition Issues and Models. (pp. 59-94), Champaign IL: Transition Institute at Illinois.
Ciardiello, J.A. (1981). Job placement success of schizophrenic clients in sheltered workshop programs. Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Bulletin, 14, 125-128, 140.
Cook, J.A. (1992). Job ending among youth and adults with severe mental illness. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 19(2), 158-169.
Cook, J.A. & Hoffschmidt, S. (1993). Psychosocial rehabilitation programming: A comprehensive model for the 1990's. In R.W. Flexer and P. Solomon (Eds.), Social and Community Support for People with Severe Mental Disabilities: Service Integration in Rehabilitation and Mental Health. Andover, MA: Andover Publishing.
Cook, J.A., Jonikas, J., & Solomon, M. (1992). Models of vocational rehabilitation for youth and adults with severe mental illness. American Rehabilitation, 18, 3, 6-32.
Cook, J.A. & Razzano, L. (1992). Natural vocational supports for persons with severe mental illness: Thresholds Supported Competitive Employment Program, in L. Stein (ed.), New Directions for Mental Health Services, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 56, 23-41.
Endicott, J.R., Spitzer, J.L. Fleiss, J.L. and Cohen, J. (1976). The Global Assessment Scale: A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 766-771.
Griffiths, R.D. (1974). Rehabilitation of chronic psychotic patients. Psychological Medicine, 4, 316-325.
Overall, J. E. and Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799-812.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and Adolescent Self Image. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.
Wehman, P. (1985). Supported competitive employment for persons with severe disabilities. In P. McCarthy, J. Everson, S. Monn & M. Barcus (Eds.), School-to-Work Transition for Youth with Severe Disabilities, (pp. 167-182), Richmond VA: Virginia Commonwealth University.
Whitehead, C.W. (1977). Sheltered Workshop Study: A Nationwide Report on Sheltered Workshops and their Employment of Handicapped Individuals. (Workshop Survey, Volume 1), U.S. Department of Labor Service Publication. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Woest, J., Klein, M. and Atkins, B.J. (1986). An overview of supported employment strategies. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 10(4), 130-135.
Table 1. Means, standard deviations and Ns for the pretest, posttest and gain scores for the four outcome variables and t-test for difference between average gains.
Figure 1. Pretest and posttest means for treatment (SE) and control groups for the four outcome measures.
The Employment Self Esteem Scale
Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.
|1. I feel good about my work on the job.|
|2. On the whole, I get along well with others at work.|
|3. I am proud of my ability to cope with difficulties at work.|
|4. When I feel uncomfortable at work, I know how to handle it.|
|5. I can tell that other people at work are glad to have me there.|
|6. I know I'll be able to cope with work for as long as I want.|
|7. I am proud of my relationship with my supervisor at work.|
|8. I am confident that I can handle my job without constant assistance.|
|9. I feel like I make a useful contribution at work.|
|10. I can tell that my co-workers respect me.|
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Last Revised: 10/20/2006