Here are some example citations for books, e-books, and audiobooks. They are based on MLA 8 guidelines. A Works Cited page should be double spaced within and between citations. To save room, we only single spaced. When a citation requires more than one line, the second line and any lines that follow should have a hanging indent. That means the first line of each citation aligns with the left margin, and all additional lines are indented half an inch.
Print Books (Whole)
Example – book, 1 author
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Warner Books, 1982.
Example – book, 2 authors
Rottmann, Alexander, and Nici Pederzolli. Freestyle Snowboarding: Tricks, Skills, and Techniques. Firefly Books, 2010.
Example – book, 3 authors, edition
Reilly, Mary Jo, et al. Mexico. 3rd ed., Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2012.
Example – book, 1 editor
Willis, Laurie, editor. Adoption. Greenhaven Press, 2012.
Example – book, 2 editors, used all volumes of a multi-volume set
Lerner, K. Lee, and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, editors. World of Sports Science. Gale, 2007. 2 vols.
Example – book, 3 editors, edition, used one volume of a multi-volume set
Lerner, K. Lee, et al., editors. Alternative Energy. 2nd ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2012.
Print Books (Part)
Example – poem in a book, 1 author
Medina, Pablo. "The Secret." Cool Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Growing Up Latino in the United States, Holt, 1994, p. 48.
Example – short story in a book, 1 author, 1 editor
Chase, Richard. "Old Christmas Eve." Grandfather Tales, edited by H. L. Pick, Viking, 1973, pp. 58-60.
Example – essay in a book, 1 author, 1 editor, edition (because 1984 is a title within a title, it is not italicized)
Fowler, Robert. "Newspeak and the Language of the Party." George Orwell's 1984, edited by Harold Bloom, updated ed., Chelsea House,
2007, pp. 93-108.
Example – encyclopedia article, author
Cloos, Mark. “Plate Tectonics.” The World Book Encyclopedia, 2013, pp. 561-65.
Example – encyclopedia article, no author, from a multi-volume set, edition
"Nike." Encyclopedia of Global Brands, 2nd ed., vol. 2, St. James Press, 2013, pp. 750-54.
Example – word in a dictionary
"Chlorophyll." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., Merriam-Webster, 2003, p. 252.
Example – map in an atlas
"Prevailing Winds and Ocean Currents." National Geographic Student World Atlas, 4th ed., National Geographic, 2014, p. 23.
Example – photograph of artwork, in a book, no author, 2 editors
“Chinese Horse.” Art That Changed the World, edited by Gadi Farour and Sam Atkinson, DK Publishing, 2013, p. 20.
Example – chapter/essay (“Wrestling…”) from a book (Private Voices, Public Lives by Flowers), republished in a different book (Contemporary Literary Criticism edited by Hunter)
Flowers, Betty S. "Wrestling with the Mother and Father: 'His' and 'Her' in Adrienne Rich." Contemporary Literary Criticism,
edited by Jeffrey W. Hunter, vol. 125, Gale, 2000, pp. 330-34.
Example – article (“Of George…” by Spilka) from a journal (Modern Fiction Studies), republished in a book (Contemporary Literary Criticism edited by Gunton)
Spilka, Mark. "Of George and Lennie and Curley's Wife: Sweet Violence in Steinbeck's Eden." Contemporary Literary Criticism,
edited by Sharon R. Gunton, vol. 21, Gale, 1982, pp. 385-87.
Book (Whole or Part) Found in a Library Database
Example – book, in a library database, no author, 1 editor
Friedman, Lauri S., editor. Cyberbullying. Greenhaven Press, 2011. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
Example – article in a book, library database, no author, 2 editors, no pages listed
“Eating Disorders.” UXL Encyclopedia of Science, edited by Amy Hackney Blackwell and Elizabeth Manar, 3rd ed., UXL, 2015.
Student Resources in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CV2644300374/SUIC?u=port&xid=6c46c891.
Book (Whole or Part) Found on the Internet
Example – word in a dictionary, Internet, publisher is same as Web site title (so do not list the publisher)
“Chlorophyll.” Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2016, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chlorophyll.
Example – encyclopedia article, Internet, publisher is same as Web site title (so do not list the publisher)
Stock, Joann. "Earthquake." World Book Student, 2016, worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar171680.
Example – e-book, 1 author, downloaded to a device
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. E-book, HarperCollins, 2014.
Example – e-book, 1 author, read on a Web site
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Twice-Told Tales. E-book, Houghton, 1883. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/etext/13707.
Example – e-book, 2 editors, read on a Web site
Wiggin, Kate D., and Nora A. Smith, editors. Pinafore Palace. E-book, Grosset, 1907. Project Gutenberg,
Example – audiobook, listened to on CD, known author, known narrator, known publisher (Listening Library), known publication date
Green, John. Turtles All the Way Down. Narrated by Kate Rudd, audiobook ed., Listening Library, 2017.
Example – audiobook, downloaded from Audible to a device (do not include the website from which you downloaded it), known author, known narrator, known publisher (HarperAudio), known publication date
Lewis, C. S. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Narrated by Michael York, audiobook ed., HarperAudio, 2005.
Example – audiobook, streamed/listened to from a Web site (Audible.com), known author, known narrator, known publisher (HarperAudio), known publication date
Lewis, C. S. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Narrated by Michael York, audiobook ed., HarperAudio, 2005. Audible.com, www.audible.com/pd/KIDS/the-lion-the-witch-and-the-wardrobe-Audiobook/
How to Cite an Encyclopedia in Print in MLA
Be sure to include the name of author (if given), the name of the article, the name of the reference book, the edition, and the year of publication. If the reference book is well known, do not include the publication information.
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s). Print.
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. "Insects." Encyclopedia of Animals. Washington: National Geographic Society, 2007. 170-71. Print
Posner, Rebecca. "Romance Languages." The Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed. 1987. Print.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia Online in MLA
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. "Insects." Encyclopedia of Animals. Washington: National Geographic Society, 2007. Google Books. Web. 2 Jan. 2010.
Hassler, Warren W. "American Civil War." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2013.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia on a Database in MLA
Last, First M. "Article Title" Encyclopedia Name. Ed. First M. Last. Vol. Volume. City: Publisher, Year Published. Database Name. Web Date Month Year.
Holmes, Heather. "Advertising of Food" Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. Vol. 1. New York: Scribner's, 2003. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 July 2010.
Bunson, Margaret R. "Historical Overview." Encyclopedia on Ancient Egypt. 3rd ed. New York: Infobase, 2012. Xii-Xv. Gale Cengage Catalog. Web. 4 Jan. 2013.
Make sure to:
- Choose if the source was published directly online or originally in print.
- Find the date that the article was electronically published.
- For well-known reference works, it is not necessary to include full publication information.
View our visual citation guide on how to cite an Encyclopedia in MLA format.