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Conclusion Paragraphs For Expository Essays Skeleton

ELL Writing Resources

This is a skeleton essay I created with sentence starters and transitions you can provide to your students to assist them with writing an argumentative essay. 
This is a chart I created that was inspired by Gretchen Bernabei's Ba-Da-Bing writing strategy to assist students with adding detail to sentences.
These Blueprint For Exceptional Writing graphic organizers can be used to assist students with organizing their writing for informational and expository texts. 
These Blueprint For Exceptional Writing graphic organizers can be used to assist students with organizing their writing for narrative texts. 
​This is resource I created to assist my EL students with writing book reviews. I have provided paragraph frames and vocabulary banks to scaffold the writing process for students. 
This chart explains how to use the Expanding Expression Tool with students to improve the quality of their writing. 
This document could be printed and folded in half to create a student bookmark. 
Gretchen Bernabi has some fantastic writing resources on her site that are really useful for language learners. 
This graphic organizer, created by Super Teacher Worksheets.Com, compares writing a good paragraph to building a delicious hamburger. It encourages students to begin with a strong topic sentence and end with a closing sentences and leaves space to add lots of details in the middle. 
This is a great resource of models essays for most types of writing that are taught at the middle school and high school level. 
This is an excellent collection of graphic organizers and paragraph frames that can be used to scaffold writing for English learners. 
This is a useful set of paragraph frames that can be used to scaffold writing for secondary students for the following text structures: descriptive, sequence, compare/contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution. 
These sentence starters, adapted from 7 Steps to a Language-Rich Interactive Classroom by John Seidlitz and Bill Perryman, are organized by the different levels of thinking you can use to scaffold writing for ELL students in your classroom. 
This resource, created by Marcie Wolfe, provides a variety of sentence starters for students to use when responding to readings.
This is great resource, created by the Eastern Institute of Technology, provides sentence starters and frames students can use for academic writing. 
These are free posters you can print out and hang in your classroom that provides signal words for compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, sequencing, and descriptive writing. 
This is a great resource for students to use when writing a written response to a novel. 
This Blueprint For Exceptional Writing graphic organizer can be used to help students expand their vocabulary by developing analogies and finding creative imagery words related to a central theme or topic. 
This Blueprint For Exceptional Writing graphic organizer can be used to help students generate paper topic ideas around a central theme. 
This is a great resource created by Scholastic for introductory essay writing. It has model essays and graphic organizers with sentence frames for the following genres of writing: narrative, descriptive, summaries, how-to-writing, persuasive, compare/contrast, cause & effect, and problem/solution. 
These are 89 different visual writing prompts created by Gretchen Bernabei.
This is an extensive collection of words students can use to describe what they are reading. 

Traditional Academic Essays In Three Parts

Part I: The Introduction

An introduction is usually the first paragraph of your academic essay. If you’re writing a long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to introduce your topic to your reader. A good introduction does 2 things:

  1. Gets the reader’s attention. You can get a reader’s attention by telling a story, providing a statistic, pointing out something strange or interesting, providing and discussing an interesting quote, etc. Be interesting and find some original angle via which to engage others in your topic.
  2. Provides a specific and debatable thesis statement. The thesis statement is usually just one sentence long, but it might be longer—even a whole paragraph—if the essay you’re writing is long. A good thesis statement makes a debatable point, meaning a point someone might disagree with and argue against. It also serves as a roadmap for what you argue in your paper.

Part II: The Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs help you prove your thesis and move you along a compelling trajectory from your introduction to your conclusion. If your thesis is a simple one, you might not need a lot of body paragraphs to prove it. If it’s more complicated, you’ll need more body paragraphs. An easy way to remember the parts of a body paragraph is to think of them as the MEAT of your essay:

Main Idea. The part of a topic sentence that states the main idea of the body paragraph. All of the sentences in the paragraph connect to it. Keep in mind that main ideas are…

  • like labels. They appear in the first sentence of the paragraph and tell your reader what’s inside the paragraph.
  • arguable. They’re not statements of fact; they’re debatable points that you prove with evidence.
  • focused. Make a specific point in each paragraph and then prove that point.

Evidence.The parts of a paragraph that prove the main idea. You might include different types of evidence in different sentences. Keep in mind that different disciplines have different ideas about what counts as evidence and they adhere to different citation styles. Examples of evidence include…

  • quotations and/or paraphrases from sources.
  • facts, e.g. statistics or findings from studies you’ve conducted.
  • narratives and/or descriptions, e.g. of your own experiences.

Analysis.The parts of a paragraph that explain the evidence. Make sure you tie the evidence you provide back to the paragraph’s main idea. In other words, discuss the evidence.

Transition.The part of a paragraph that helps you move fluidly from the last paragraph. Transitions appear in topic sentences along with main ideas, and they look both backward and forward in order to help you connect your ideas for your reader. Don’t end paragraphs with transitions; start with them.

Keep in mind that MEAT does not occur in that order. The “Transition” and the “Main Idea” often combine to form the first sentence—the topic sentence—and then paragraphs contain multiple sentences of evidence and analysis. For example, a paragraph might look like this: TM. E. E. A. E. E. A. A.

Part III: The Conclusion

A conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay, or, if you’re writing a really long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to conclude. A conclusion typically does one of two things—or, of course, it can do both:

  1. Summarizes the argument. Some instructors expect you not to say anything new in your conclusion. They just want you to restate your main points. Especially if you’ve made a long and complicated argument, it’s useful to restate your main points for your reader by the time you’ve gotten to your conclusion. If you opt to do so, keep in mind that you should use different language than you used in your introduction and your body paragraphs. The introduction and conclusion shouldn’t be the same.
  2. Explains the significance of the argument. Some instructors want you to avoid restating your main points; they instead want you to explain your argument’s significance. In other words, they want you to answer the “so what” question by giving your reader a clearer sense of why your argument matters.
    • For example, your argument might be significant to studies of a certain time period.
    • Alternately, it might be significant to a certain geographical region.
    • Alternately still, it might influence how your readers think about the future. You might even opt to speculate about the future and/or call your readers to action in your conclusion.

Handout by Dr. Liliana Naydan. Do not reproduce without permission.