Take the Varsity Learning Tools free diagnostic test for AP European History to determine which academic concepts you understand and which ones require your ongoing attention. Each AP European History problem is tagged down to the core, underlying concept that is being tested. The AP European History diagnostic test results highlight how you performed on each area of the test. You can then utilize the results to create a personalized study plan that is based on your particular area of need.
Note: The College Board has redesigned the structure of AP European History classes, but as these changes will not take place until the 2015-2016 school year, this guide solely pertains to the current format of AP European History classes and exams.
Even if you’ve taken history classes before, the prospect of taking AP European History may seem particularly scary. AP classes are widely known for being extremely challenging in their coverage of a wide variety of topics in significant detail, and European History is a subject that lends itself to many details and requires its students to contextualize those details in different ways in order to draw out the complex ways in which historical concepts are interrelated; however, by first examining the broad topic areas that AP European History courses stress, then taking a look at the general structure of the AP European History exam and the material which it covers, and finally looking into some great AP European History resources available for free online, you can prepare yourself for the prospect of taking AP European History, learn how to keep up in a class you may already be enrolled in, or learn how to refresh your knowledge in preparation for a looming AP European History exam.
AP classes aim to replicate the experience of a college course for well-prepared high school students. In the case of AP European History, the course aims to deliver the same experience as a college-level introductory European history class. The course covers European history from the Renaissance (starting in 1450) to the present time, and focuses on the crucial intellectual, cultural, political, diplomatic, economic, and social events that have taken place during this time and had major influence in shaping the course of history and the modern world. Along with familiarizing students with these events and the larger narratives they together construct, students are expected to become familiar with the larger themes and patterns that this material expresses, along with being able to analyze primary historical sources in a historical context confidently, connecting new information to their existing historical knowledge and analyzing it in that light.
AP European History courses are typically concluded with each student taking the AP European History exam. Earning an exemplary score on this exam allows the student to earn college credit for his or her efforts. Like all AP exams, AP European History exam is a lengthy exam, clocking in at three hours and five minutes. It is made up of two seconds: a multiple-choice section, which lasts for fifty-five minutes, and a free-response section, which lasts for one hour and thirty minutes. Each of these sections are worth half of a student’s AP European History exam grade. The multiple-choice section contains eighty questions; about half of these questions pertain to events that took place between 150 CE and the French Revolution, and the other half pertain to events that took place after the French Revolution. About a quarter of the total questions (that is, about twenty questions) deal with nineteenth-century material, and an equal number of questions deal with twentieth-century events. The questions are also divided by the themes which they address: about twenty-seven questions (33% of all of the multiple-choice questions) deal with intellectual and cultural themes, another twenty-seven or so deal with diplomatic and political themes, and the final twenty-seven or so deal with economic and social themes.
The second section of the AP European History exam is the free-response, or essay-based, section. This section contains one documents-based essay question, which asks students to peruse a number of primary historical sources and reference them in constructing a response to a prompt. The section also contains two analytical essays which do not provide historical sources to analyze. Students get to choose from three prompts for each of the shorter essays, but must answer the single documents-based question with which they are prompted. As far as the timing of the section goes, students read over the materials for the documents-based question for fifteen minutes and then are given forty-five minutes to construct their response to it. After this, they are given seventy minutes to answer the two analytical essays. The documents-based essay question is worth 45% of the free-response section’s score; the two shorter essays are together worth 55% of the section’s score.
If you’re now wondering where you can find great resources that will both allow you to study for AP European History while making sure that you haven’t left any gaps in your knowledge, look no further than Varsity Tutors’ free AP European History resources, especially our free AP European History Practice Tests! Each free AP European History Practice Test functions as a little multiple-choice quiz and contains about a dozen problems of the sort that you could encounter on your AP European History exam. After completing an AP European History Practice Test, you get to see how well you did in comparison to other students who answered the same problems, as well as how long it took you to answer each problem and other statistics. You also get to see a full explanation of the correct answer for each problem, so if you happened to miss any questions, you can find out where you made your mistake and not make it again. Using Varsity Tutors’ free AP European History resources, you can make sure that you don’t fall behind in your AP European History course, and fill any knowledge gaps just as they arise. In this way, you’ll be able to feel completely ready to take on the AP European History exam!
Our completely free AP European History practice tests are the perfect way to brush up your skills. Take one of our many AP European History practice tests for a run-through of commonly asked questions. You will receive incredibly detailed scoring results at the end of your AP European History practice test to help you identify your strengths and weaknesses. Pick one of our AP European History practice tests now and begin!
Free Research Papers on European History
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Feeling that all was lost, Hitler shot himself on April 30, 1945. By orders formally given by him before his death, SS officers immersed Hitler’s body in gasoline and burned it in the garden of the Chancellery. Soon after the suicide of Hitler, the Germ On Easter Sunday April 20, 1889, at an inn called the Gasth of Zum Pommer, the wife of an Austrian Customs official gave birth to a son, Adolf Hit... Full-text essay
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Branau, Austria, a small town across the inn River from Germany. He was the third son of Customs Official, Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. Alois moved his family into Linz, Austria where Adolf attended school and church regularly. Young Hitler was a good student until his mother's death when Adolf was only sixteen, and having his dad die just two ... Full-text essay
German Workers’ Party believed they were superior to the peoples of all other nations and all individual efforts were to be performed for the betterment of the German State. Germany’s loss in World War I resulted in the Peace Treaty of Versailles, which created tremendous economic and social hardships on Germany. Germany had to make reparations to the Allied and Associated Governments involved in... Full-text essay
At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attendated church regulary and sang in the local choir. One day he carved a symbol into the bench which resembled the Swastika he later used as the symbol of ... Full-text essay
At the close of World War One tensions still rode high between countries, trade slowed and unemployment rose. A new form of government was also used, totalitarianism. This form of government means there is only one leader to make decisions and thus they killed or jailed all opponents. Mussolini and Hitler used this form of government after World War One to make their countries world powers. Althou... Full-text essay
Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his fathe... Full-text essay
What Does Genocide Mean? The era of mass murder might be given as a name for the 20th century. Never in the history of the world have so many millions of people been deliberately killed since 1900. These millions weren't all because of war. They were victims of genocide: the deliberate killings of racial, religious, ethnic, or political groups. The word genocide is from the Greek genos, meaning&qu... Full-text essay
On the night of June 22, 1941, more than 3 million German soldiers, 600 000 vehicles and 3350 tanks were amassed along a 2000km front stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Their sites were all trained on Russia. This force was part of 'Operation Barbarossa', the eastern front of the greatest military machine ever assembled. This machine was Adolf Hitler's German army. For Hitler, the inevit... Full-text essay
As 1945 approached it seemed, to most, that Germany's surrender was only a matter of time. The Allies, having been on the offensive for so long, had an all time high determination and morale. The idea that Germany could muster the supplies, troops, or will to launch an offensive seemed crazy. In fact, many were already asking the questions of when and where the assault on the Rhine should be la... Full-text essay
“The Black Death serves as a major turning point in the history of European civilization.” The arrival of both the bubonic and pneumonic plagues threw Europe as a whole into an economic, social, and political tailspin. Europe was already on its collective way down economically due to declining areas of cultivation and the effects of prolonged warfare when, in 1347, the Black Death set upon the Eur... Full-text essay
In the 1340’s, approximately one third to one half the population of Europe was wiped out by what was called “The Black Death”. The people of the time were armed with little to no understanding of why and how the plague happened and how to control it; and this allowed for the vast destruction that occurred in little more than three years time. The origin of the epidemic has, with little doubt, bee... Full-text essay
The nineteenth (19th) century was a period of great change and accompanying social unrest in the British Isles. Most outstanding among the changes was the industrial revolution. As everything in life, it brought good, but it also brought evil. The industrial revolution combined with the expansion of the British Empire made the United Kingdom, the richest and most powerful country in the world. Som... Full-text essay
This book is about pretty much the beginning of Calvinism and how it played a major role in the reforming of mid to late fifteenth century Europe. Franklin Charles Palm tries to exam the role in which John Calvin used his love for the sacred scriptures and religion to reform the way he lived, and the rest of the world. Concentrating mostly on Europe at that time period. Palm breaks down the life... Full-text essay
Captain Swing is an enjoyable collaboration between E. J. Hobsbawm and George Rude that depicts the social history of the English agricultural wage-laborers’ uprising of 1830. According to Hobsbawm and Rude, historiography of the laborers’ rising of 1830 is negligible. Most of what is known by the general public comes from J. L. And Barbara Hammond’s The Village Laborer published in 1911. They con... Full-text essay
By Guneri Tugcu In 1494 the armies of the French king, Charles VIII, invaded Italy to capture the kingdom of Naples. They swept through the country and bombarded and destroyed many castles. This invasion signaled the end of the castle as a stronghold of defense. For centuries it had been the dominant fortification in Western Europe for the defense of kings, nobility, and townspeople. Ancient citie... Full-text essay
Throughout history, Russia has been viewed as a regressive cluster of barely civilized people on the verge of barbarism. In the eighteenth century, ideas of science and secularism grasped hold of Europe, and Russian Czars, realizing how behind Muscovite culture was, sought out this knowledge, attempting to imbed it into Russian society. Catherine II was one of these Czars. She listened to both the... Full-text essay
Charlemagne Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, became the undisputed ruler of Western Europe. As Western Europe was deteriorating Charlemagne was crowned the privilege of being joint king of the Franks in 768 A.D. People of Western Europe, excluding the church followers, had all but forgotten the great gifts of education and arts that they had possessed at one time. Charlemagne solidly ... Full-text essay
Throughout history, there have been many good and bad rulers, from the bravery of Alexander the Great, to the madness of George III. None, however, helped shape European feudalism like Charlemagne, King of the Franks, First of the Holy Roman Emperors. His advancements in government were not his only advancements though. He created an educational system for his people. While far behind the public a... Full-text essay
The Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986 is described as one of the most frightening environmental disasters in the world. The plant was made up of four graphite reactors, which were the most modern Soviet reactors of the RBMK-type. Two more of these reactors were still under construction at the station. Chernobyl was an obscure town in north central Ukraine (former Soviet Union) on the Pripyiat R... Full-text essay
Chivalry is usually known as a moral system or an honor code. It originated in the 12th century when kings ruled the country, as a code to make peace. Now there is no king or queen monarchy, now there’s that wonderful thing that we call the Government. If you were to ask me if chivalry existed today I’d have to say that there are some examples, but there sure aren’t as many as there used to be. Ba... Full-text essay
During the Middle Ages, church and state leaders had many battles. Some who were involved were Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV and Pope Gregory VIII; King II and Archbishop Thomas Becket; King Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII. Their situations were all related by the fact that they were all controversies between an emperor or king and the Catholic church. The Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich (Henry) IV ... Full-text essay
Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western European Christians. The crusades started around 1095. The purpose of these crusades was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Holy Land was Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it was their fate. The pope would gather the people together and incite them. The origin of the c... Full-text essay
In the Middle Ages, Christians considered Palestine the Holy Land because it was where Jesus had lived and taught. The Arabs had conquered Palestine in the 600s. Most Arabs were Muslims, but they usually tolerated other religions. Jews and Christians who paid their taxes and observed other regulations were free to live in Palestine and practice their own religion. The Arab rulers didn’t usually in... Full-text essay
The Crusades were Europe's version for "holy wars" during the Middle Ages. The official First Crusade began in 1096-1099. The First Crusade conquered a strip of land along the eastern coast of the Mediteranean about 500 miles long and averaging 40 miles wide. This European foothold in the Middle East was divided into four little kingdoms; the county of edessa, the Principality of Antioch... Full-text essay
Although many of his ideas did not bring the expected results, Nikita Khrushchev policies of de-Stalinization were politically wise. He went against many of Stalin’s tyrannical policies and gave the people a much greater sense of freedom. In the process known as “de-Stalinization”, legal procedures were restored, some greater degree of meaningful public controversy was permitted, forced labor camp... Full-text essay
England has one of the finest educational system in the world. All English children between ages 5-16 must attend school. About 90 percent of the students go to schools supported entirely or partly by public funds. The rest of the students attend private schools. The Department of Education and Science and local education authorities supervise England's school system. England's educational system ... Full-text essay
During the eighteenth century, Europeans experienced the dawning of an age of knowledge, reasoning, and of great scientific achievements. Their views toward new discoveries and advancements were optimistic. People began to turn to science for a better understanding of their world and their society. Literature and essays were commonly used to express their hopes for further developments in society,... Full-text essay
The Enlightenment is the name given to the intellectual movement that was centered in the Western World, mainly Europe, during the 18th century. The rise of modern science greatly influenced the enlightenment. It was also the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation. The thinkers of the Enlightenment were dedicated to secular views based on reason of human understandi... Full-text essay
enlightenment was a great time of change in both Europe and America. Some of the biggest changes, however, happened in the minds of many and in the writings of many philosophers. These included some of the beliefs of David Hume, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Francois Voltaire. Writers during this time focused on optimism, which is the opinion to do everything for the best (Chaney 119),... Full-text essay
The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophers in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human u... Full-text essay
Bernal Diaz del Castillo accompanied Captain Hernan Cortez in his march on Tenichitilan (Mexico City) in 1519, resulting in the surrender of this Aztec capital in 1521. Castillo contends that he will give us the honest account of what happened and not to give a bias opinion of what happened. We read three different sections from his book. The first is his trip to the Caribbean, the second is his e... Full-text essay
of men and women in the 16th century is said to have gone through three different phases. The styles differed quite noticeably from one phase to the next. However, the general dates that these phases took place are not the same for men and women. For men, the earliest phase was a transition from medieval styles to the styles of the Renaissance. Following this period, the German influence was prom... Full-text essay
Although in the Treaty of Versailles Germany was to accept full responsibility for World War 1 this in not necessarily the case. Many factors have to be taken into account when considering the cause of World War 1. Germany may have been primarily responsible for the war but the other major powers must accept some of the blame for failing to prevent it. The conflict resulting from the assassination... Full-text essay
By: It is widely known what went on between the Jews and the Germans during World War II. Millions upon millions of Jews were killed because of Hitler's hatred, Hitler's tyranny, and Hitler's fury. While many people today still cringe at the thought of life in concentration camps, many are not aware of the harsh reality that existed in the Jewish ghettos. The word "ghetto" is not only th... Full-text essay
In order to explain certain natural events, such as earthquakes, windstorms, and thunder and lightning storms, The Greeks invented a collection of myths and characters. Just as with most modern religions, Greek Mythology bases most of it’s myths on morality and ethics issues. Unlike Egyptian Mythology, the Greeks did not focus on what was going to happen in their afterlife. They were more concerne... Full-text essay
Hamlet, the prince of Denmark was very upset by his father's death, in the battle with the Norwegians. Then, Claudius, prince Hamlet's uncle became the king and married Queen Gertrude. Once, when prince Hamlet and his best friend Horatio were having a chat, the spirit of King Hamlet who was murdered on the battle with Norwegians, came and told them that Claudius was the real murderer of him. He po... Full-text essay
On June 28, 1491 Henry the VIII of England was born. This young man will form his own church. He will succeed to the throne in 1509. He will also marry six women! Something good will happen when he is king, he will unite England and Wales and will also do some bad things like executing people who would not follow his rules. In 1539, the Act of Supremacy declared Henry to be the head of the Church ... Full-text essay
Justinian’s court was much like the Eastern’s rule; the subjects were spaced from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even though the common language was Greek. 2. 622- Heraclius opened a successful attack on the Persians. 628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was signed in favor of Heraclius 632- Muhammad’s followers conquered and ran the Empire.... Full-text essay
In the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s the people of northern Europe, southern Africa and Asia were in despair. They had no leaders. They were defenseless. India had been taken over by the British Empire and now the 315 million Indians were under the rule of the 100 thousand British soldiers there. In Germany there were six different political groups; nobody knew what to do. These countries were ... Full-text essay
During the period leading up to World War II, there were two famous dictators who were on opposing sides, yet had similar records. These men were Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin. They were each triumphant in their rise to power in their countries and they were very comparable in the ways that they succeeded. Their success was mostly attributed to their new ideas and their politics. Although Hitler... Full-text essay
INTRODUCTION The Holocaust is the most horrifying crime against humanity of all times. "Hitler, in an attempt to establish the pure Aryan race, decided that all mentally ill, gypsies, non supporters of Nazism, and Jews were to be eliminated from the German population. He proceeded to reach his goal in a systematic scheme." One of his main methods of "doing away" with these &qu... Full-text essay
Throughout time more powerful countries have extended their influence over weaker countries and then colonized those countries to expand their own power. Imperialism causes the stronger countries to grow and become nations or even empires. There are many examples throughout European history of nations enveloping weaker countries and increasing their own wealth and power to form strong nation-state... Full-text essay
Terrorism is an element of modern society that cannot be escaped. Acts of terrorism occur during times of war and times of peace. Some are to prove a point, others to show defiance. Terrorism can never be completely eliminated because the human race will always find a reason for there to be violence. No culture is perfect. However, we can take steps to prevent such seemingly senseless attacks. Gov... Full-text essay
“How was the Italian Renaissance an age in which life was a work of art?” The Renaissance was an important time. It was a time when new ideas were formed, worldly places became more important, and great people became known. All of which paved the way to future inventions, philosophies, and life as we know it. During the Renaissance, new possibilities were explored. One of which was a group of peop... Full-text essay
Candice Ivan IV, Tsar of Russia is better known as Ivan the terrible. In the following paragraphs I will depict major events in his life and the role he played in Russia. I will also exhibit the many positive things that he did. As well as the negative things that he did to Russian society during his reign of thirty-seven years. I will debate the fact that Ivan IV was nick named Ivan the terr... Full-text essay
Jacques Cartier was born in St. Malo (France) in 1491. Not much is known of his life before 1534, when he departed on his first voyage. He was looking for a passage through or around North America to East Asia, as some had done before him, and many would after him. Though he undoubtedly made a voyage to the New World prior to 1534, probably in Brazil. In 1534, he was given a grant by King Francis ... Full-text essay
Julius Caesar was said to be the greatest man in the Roman world. Some historians, and among them those of international authority, have made greater claims for him. He was the greatest of the Roman would but of antiquity. Looking through the onlg list of rulers, kings and emperors and the rest, they have failed to find an wuqual of this man who refused the style of king but those name Ceasar has ... Full-text essay
King Henri IV was born at Pau in Bearn on December 13, 1553. Raised by his mother, Jeane d’Albret (Queen of Navarre), Henri was brought up in a remote castle in the Pyrenees. He grew up amongst the peasant children of that area and raised on a diet of bread, cheese, and garlic. As a youngster Henri was brought up in the Protestant faith, which was the opposite of his father’s wishes. As result, He... Full-text essay
The French chemist Louis Pasteur devoted his life to solving practical problems of industry, agriculture, and medicine. His discoveries have saved countless lives and created new wealth for the world. Among his discoveries are the pasteurization process and ways of preventing silkworm diseases, anthrax, chicken cholera, and rabies. Pasteur sought no profits from his discoveries, and he supported h... Full-text essay
On the night of October 15, 1946, ten of the twelve major war criminals, condemned to death at the Nuremberg trials, were executed. Of the two who eluded the hangman, one was ReichMarshal Hermann Goring, who committed suicide by swallowing a lethal vial of cyanide two hours before his execution. The other man was Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, who had managed to gain an enormous amount of power with... Full-text essay