1) Capture your market without destroying it
“Generally in war, the best policy is to take a state intact; to ruin it is inferior to this….For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill.” Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu calls this the need to “win-all-without-fighting”. Since the goal of your business is to survive and prosper, you must capture your market. However, you must do so in such a way that your market is not destroyed in the process. A company can do this in several ways, such as attacking parts of the market that are under-served or by using subtle, indirect, and low-key approach that will not draw a competitor’s attention or response. What should be avoided at all costs is a price-war. Research has shown that price attacks draw the quickest and most aggressive responses from competitors, as well as leaving the market drained of profits.
2) Avoid your competitor’s strength, and attack their weakness
“An army may be likened to water, for just as flowing water avoids the heights and hastens to the lowlands, so an army avoids strength and strikes weakness.” Sun Tzu
The Western approach to warfare has spilled over into business competition, leading many companies to launch head-on, direct attacks against their competitor’s strongest point. This approach to business strategy leads to battles of attrition, which end up being very costly for everyone involved. Instead, you should focus on the competition’s weakness, which maximizes your gains while minimizing the use of resources. This, by definition, increases profits.
3) Use foreknowledge & deception to maximize the power of business intelligence.
“Know the enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never be in peril” Sun Tzu
To find and exploit your competitor’s weakness requires a deep understanding of their executives’ strategy, capabilities, thoughts and desires, as well as similar depth of knowledge of your own strengths and weaknesses. It is also important to understand the overall competitive and industry trends occurring around you in order to have a feel for the “terrain” on which you will do battle. Conversely, to keep your competitor from utilizing this strategy against you, it is critical to mask your plans and keep them secret.
4) Use speed and preparation to swiftly overcome the competition.
“To rely on rustics and not prepare is the greatest of crimes; to be prepared beforehand for any contingency is the greatest of virtues.” Sun Tzu
To fully exploit foreknowledge and deception, Sun Tzu states that you must be able to act with blinding speed. To move with speed does not mean that you do things hastily. In reality, speed requires much preparation. Reducing the time it takes your company to make decisions, develop products and service customers is critical. To think through and understand potential competitive reactions to your attacks is essential as well.
5) Use alliances and strategic control points in the industry to “shape” your opponents and make them conform to your will.
“Therefore, those skilled in war bring the enemy to the field of battle and are not brought there by him.” Sun Tzu
“Shaping you competition” means changing the rules of contest and making the competition conform to your desires and your actions. It means taking control of the situation away from your competitor and putting it in your own hands. One way of doing so is through the skillful use of alliances. By building a strong web of alliances, the moves of your competitors can be limited. Also, by controlling key strategic points in your industry, you will be able to call the tune to which your competitors dance.
6) Develop your character as a leader to maximize the potential of your employees.
“When one treats people with benevolence, justice and righteousness, and reposes confidence in them, the army will be united in mind and all will be happy to serve their leaders.” Sun Tzu
It takes a special kind of leader to implement these strategic concepts and maximize the tremendous potential of employees. Sun Tzu describes the many traits of the preferred type of leader. The leader should be wise, sincere, humane, courageous, and strict. Leaders must also always be “first in the toils and fatigues of the army”, putting their needs behind those of their troops. It is leaders with character that get the most out of their employees.
These principles have been utilized throughout time in both the military arena and the business world to build creative strategies and achieve lasting success. If you use them properly, they will bring you success as well.
Mark McNeilly offers keynote speeches on the Six Principles.Here is a short introduction to them:
War Photography and Related Media
Thurs. , West Hall 214
, Associate Professor of Electronic Arts
War Photography and Related Media is a studio course with short seminars where multiple perspectives of war imagery and media are explored. The essential elements of conflict and how it is captured visually and aurally throughout history are examined. Through film screenings, images and personal accounts, students become aware of multiple perspectives of looking at the same conflict. Short studies exploring notions of conflict and response lead to a student directed final project which comments on a major theme of possible resolution.
Conflicts abide worldwide, from disagreements with others to outright wars. Ancient , the American Civil War, World War I and II, the Irish/English conflict, the Arab-Israeli War, Civil wars, the Vietnam War, the Civil Wars of Africa, Desert Storm, and the on-going Iraqi War are historical events which offer territories of study for learning conflict resolution.
Why do we want to see images of War? Them and us?
What would a Department of Peace look/sound like?
Is War really part of the human condition?
Can simulation be a potent tool to help us recognize different points of view?
Can we use technology, which many times comes from military research, to help us understand instead of annihilate?
Susan Sontag,Regarding the Pain of Others
Sun Tzu, The Art of War, The oldest military treatise in the world. http://www.chinapage.com/sunzi-e.html
Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/debord/society.htm
Short Studies: notions of conflict and response
Due Sept 15
* Create a photomontage about war (using found images) which particularly affected you or your family.
Due Sept 22
* Create a photomontage about peace (using found images) which relates to your family in the event war did not occur.
Due Sept 29
* Create a War game plan map (pencil on vellum drawing)
Due Oct 6
* Create a Resolution game plan map (pencil on vellum drawing)
Due Oct 20
* Create a photo essay about conflict in your environment (using your original imagery)
Due Oct 27
* Create a photo essay about resolution in your environment (using your original imagery)
Due Nov 10
* Create a simulation and show multiple points of view
An artwork or essay which comments on a major theme of possible resolution to world conflict
Due Dec 1 Project Pre Reviews
Due Dec 8 All Final Projects
Regret to Inform 1998 – , A documentary that premiered in competition at the 1999 Sundance Film Festival, Regret to Inform analyzes the Vietnam War from the point of view of the women who lost the men they loved. Interweaving interviews with American and Vietnamese women, the film also centers on the documentary filmmaker Barbara Sonneborn, who learned on her 24th birthday that her husband (and sweetheart of ten years) died in the war. Twenty years later, Barbara takes her camera to to retrace the final steps of her husband, hoping to finally set aside her unanswered questions. Through Sonneborn and the women she meets, viewers are reminded of the horrors of war and see that a single bullet has an effect far beyond the body it hits.
Photomontage Today: Peter Kennard
Zygosis, a film by Gavin Hodge & Tim Morrison about John Heartfield, the anti-Nazi German satirist who pioneered the photomontage
War Photographer, about photojournalist JameNachtwey by ChristFrei
Ran, a film by Akira Kurosawa
The famous Japanese filmmaker uses Shakeapear’s King Lear to tell the story of an old man’s quest for meaning within and incomprehensible, unframed war. To enable the audience to see the clash of armies, Kurosawa silences their clashing armor and the screams of the wounded before he immerses the carnage in music. He imposes a spectacular order on chaos.
21 Days to Takes a comprehensive look at Operation Iraqi Freedom, from the military buildup and the shock and awe campaign to the fire-fight in and the toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue. With spectacular footage never before seen in the and emotional first-hand accounts of soldiers, reporters and National Geographic's award-winning production team, 21 Days to will provide an exclusive, insider's look at war strategy and the pivotal moments of the war".
War Spin: the Media and the War Originally broadcast in 2003 as a documentary from the BBC series: Correspondent. Reporter, John Kampfner. Summary In his report, John Kampfner skeptically analyzes the heroic reports of the ambush, capture, and rescue of Private Jessica Lynch, calling them misrepresentations designed to bolster weak support for the war effort.
Basic Camera Techinques, BCTE
Images in Media A behind-the-scenes look at the media's image-makers, from the first photographers to today's Madison Avenue wizards; asks some disturbing questions about the self-selected few who hold a distorted mirror up to our society.
American Photography: A Century of ImagesThe story of the pictures we have taken and where they have taken us. The series traces the profound effect photographs have had on American life-- influencing what we buy, how we dress, how we get the news, and in the matters of life and death, medicine, science, and war.
Fälschung, Die (Circle of Deceit) Volker Schlöndorff (English) olkerSchlondorff's CIRCLE OF DECEIT eloquently captures the chaos of war through the eyes of German journalist Georg (Bruno Ganz). As his marriage quickly degrades, Georg decides to escape to war-torn , where he hopes to document the country's civil war in an essay for his newspaper. Along with his photographer friend Hoffman (JerzySkolimowski), he finds himself immersed in the immediacy of the violence -- dodging bullets and conducting interviews with dangerous subjects.
Live from Baghdad, This HBO Films production mixes breakneck excitement, biting humor and blistering drama in telling the behind-the-scenes true story of how brash CNN producer Robert Wiener (Michael Keaton) and his resourceful team made history, and reported it, during the onset of the 1991 Gulf War. Arriving in , Wiener and co-producer Ingrid Formanek (Helena Bonham Carter) contend with numerous logistical, technical and political challenges as they attempt to report on the situation in as war looms. While feeding stories to a hungry 24-hour news network under the scrutiny of Iraqi censorship and Saddam's propaganda efforts, the two producers must stay ahead of the competition - the Big Three networks. When the bombs hit Baghdad on January 16, 1991 (most of the other news crews have fled the city), the ingenuity and courage of Wiener, Ingrid and their crew (including CNN anchor Bernard Shaw and reporters Peter Arnett and John Holliman) pay off when they are able to use a coveted "four-wire" transmitter to relay live reports on the U.S. bombing of Baghdad not just to America, but the entire world.
Control Room (2004) (2004)a documentary about the Middle East news agency Al-Jazeera, takes a perspective that most Americans won’t share, but refusing to look at perspectives different from one’s own is a denial of larger realities.
A Force More Powerful: series on on-violent political resistance in , , s
’s Unseen War Journey deep behind battle lines to experience a different side of the Vietnam War - the side seen only through the lenses of photographers. Renowned British photojournalist Tim Page travels back to the land where he nearly lost his life to meet with North Vietnamese war photographers, revealing remarkable, never-before-seen photos and personal stories long hidden by time and tragedy.
Hotel RowandaThe deeply moving true story of a five-star-hotel manager who used his wits and words to save more than 1,200 lives during the 1994 Rwandan conflict.
Intro to class and studio/seminar topics
Ideas about multiple viewpoints
Film: Regret to Inform, showing two sides to the “” or “American” War
Lecture/ Discussion setting the ideas to see multiple sides of conflict
: Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others
History of Photomontage
John Heartfield, the anti-Nazi German satirist who pioneered the photomontage http://www.towson.edu/heartfield/art/5.html
Hannah Hoch: Born 1898, , Died 1978, .
Skills: image scanning, traditional photomontage & digital photomontage techniques, cutting, pasting, feathering edges, layers,
Film: Photomontage Today: Peter Kennard
Discuss Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others
Critiques of photomontage about war (using found images) which particularly affected you or your family.
Critiques of photomontage about peace (using found images) which relates to your family in the event war did not occur.
Film: War Photographer
: Sun Tzu, The Art of War, The oldest military treatise in the world.
Discuss Sun Tzu, The Art of War (see below)
See film Ran
Discuss war scenarios and game plans
Create War game plan maps (pencil on vellum drawing)
Who is Sun Tzu?
Chinese general, circa 500 B.C. A collection of essays on the art of war is attributed to Sun Tzu. These are the earliest known treatises on the subject. There is a growing number of translations of this Chinese classic, usually titled Sun Tzu: The Art of War. Sometimes the wording is reversed. Knowledge of Sun Tzu reached shortly before the French Revolution in the form of a summary translation by Father J. J. M. Amiot, a French Jesuit priest. In the various translations, Sun Tzu is sometimes referred to as Sun Wu, and Sun Tzi. See Sun Tzu Book List.
The most fundamental of Sun Tzu's principles for the conduct of war is that "All warfare is based on deception".
Another key Sun Tzu principle is that "The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting."
Sun Tzu's ideas spread to the rest of and to . The Japanese quickly adopted Sun Tzu's teaching and perhaps added a few chapters of their own. It is no accident that As cultures are referred to as cultures of strategy, and Sun Tzu has played no small part in this development. The works of Sun Tzu have been widely known in the since the mid-1970s. Diplomat Henry Kissinger has made reference to Sun Tzu and the principles for the conduct of warfare has been the subject of serious study in military circles for many years. The art of war as applied to business, sports, diplomacy and personal lives has been popularized in American business and management texts. Sun Tzu may be the most frequently quoted Chinese personality in the world today, ecliing Confucius, Lao Tze and Mao Dzedong. Basketball coach Pat Riley and lawyer Gerry Spence have quoted from Sun Tzu in their books. [Pat Riley and Art of War] [Gerry Spence and Art of War] [Ronnie Lott and the Art of War]
() Sun Tzu Bibliography The works of Sun Tzu dominate any bibliography on the Art of War. Lists sources translated to English, including other Chinese authors, Machiavelli and von Clausewitz in addition to Sun Tzu. There are submissions being readied for an upcoming revision to the bibliography that include translations to Scandinav languages as well. This bibliography is catalogued on Yahoo!Fighting wars to lose. Why is the US letting this happen? (The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.)
Sun-tzu Art of War
The oldest and unquestionably most famous work in ’s lengthy martial tradition, as well as one of the civiation’s founding books, Sun-tzu’s laconic Ping-fa preserves the first articulation of the critical concepts and tactical principles underlying ’s traditional military science. Many of the ideas, terms, and sayings entered the language itself and, in part because of a resurgence of interest in past knowledge and achievements as searches for a unique military doctrine as well as the voracious appetite of modern media, continue to affect the strategic mindset even today.
Although the extant text is fragmented, enigmatic, and marked by disjunctures and outright contradictions because of the limitations imposed by the written medium -- short bamboo stri containing about fifteen characters each -- Sun-tzu embraced a coherent vision that emphasized the ruthless practice of efficient warfare, a necessity in an era of multi-state conflict when even victory might doom a state. Knowledge based, it stresses the application of overwhelming strategic power to exploit locaed imbalances and thereby wrest swift victory, Key concepts include the necessity of acquiring intelligence and consequent need to employ spies; evaluating opponents; manipulating enemies; being formless and unknowable; creating and employing strategic power; ch’i or spirit; the unorthodox and orthodox; leadership and command; configurations of terrain; thwarting the enemy’s plans and balking his allces; and achieving victory as economically as possible, preferably without costly combat.
Even though the core of the book is a translation of the traditionally received text of the Art of War -- the book that influenced imperial military thinkers and commanders for two thousand years -- passages from recently recovered tomb texts are integrated or otherwise provided, and fragments otherwise preserved over the centuries included. The introduction explores the historical context of the Spring and Autumn period; examines Sun-tzu’s life; discusses the politics and measures in the state of Wu where he purportedly served as a military advisor; and describes the pivotal campaigns that unfolded during his era and immediately thereafter, including Yueh’s resurgence to exterminate Wu itself. Spring and Autumn weapons and military practices are briefly characterized and extensive notes on both textual and historical matters provided. A Chinese glossary and categorical bibliography conclude the book.
Text of The Art of War:
Critique War game plan maps and War Resolution game plan maps (pencil on vellum drawings)
Using camera, tripod, lighting kit, the Epson 10,000 archival printer
Films: 21 Days to ,
War Spin: the Media and the War
Photographers of the Civil War:
War Photographers: Some of the Greats:
From Robert Capa's 1936 photograph "Falling Soldier" to Joe Rosenthal's Pulitzer Prize-winning image of Marines raising the flag on , there is a deep fascination with capturing the emotional, physical and psychological essence of war.
Bio and most famous photographs http://www.pbs.org/weta/reportingamericaatwar/reporters/capa/
Falling soldier controversyhttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/capa_r.html
American Photojournalist http://www.americanphotojournalist.com/story.php?storyid=66
Read: Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/debord/society.htm
Film: Fälschung, Die (Circle of Deceit) Volker Schlöndorff
Symbol, Allegory, Representation
Artists’ Responses to War and conflict
Assignment: start your research for your final project
Critique photo essays on conflict in your environment
Critique photo essay about resolution in your environment
War Memorials :Who are we remembering? Why are they forgotten? What did they do? Can we learn from their experiences?
Film Live from
Assignment: start your research for your final project